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(Environmental burden of disease series) 1.Needlestick injuries-complications 2.Wounds, Stab-complications 3.Blood-borne pathogens 4.Hepatitis B-etiology 5.Hepatitis C-etiology 6.HIV infections Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the(More)
Human monkeypox is a zoonotic smallpox-like disease caused by an orthopoxvirus of interhuman transmissibility too low to sustain spread in susceptible populations. In February 1997, 88 cases of febrile pustular rash were identified for the previous 12 months in 12 villages of the Katako-Kombe Health Zone, Democratic Republic of Congo (attack rate = 22 per(More)
OBJECTIVE To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. METHODS A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical(More)
BACKGROUND Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. METHODS We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for > or = one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February - May(More)
A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for calculating the estimates described in this document can be obtained from WHO/PHE. Rapiti, Elisabetta. Sharps injuries : assessing the burden of disease from sharps injuries to health-care workers at national and local levels / Elisabetta Rapiti, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Yvan Hutin.
BACKGROUND On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of(More)
An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting(More)
In November 2003, an outbreak (41 cases; attack rate-4.3%; no deaths) of severe diarrhoea was reported from a village in Orissa, eastern India. Thirteen of these cases were hospitalized. A matched case-control study was conducted to identify the possible exposure variables. Since all wells were heavily chlorinated immediately after the outbreak, water(More)
China has long experience using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. We summarize this experience and provide recent data on adverse events after immunization (AEFIs) with hepatitis A vaccines in China. We reviewed the published literature (in Chinese and English) and the published Chinese regulatory documents(More)