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BACKGROUND/AIMS End-stage liver disease accounts for one in forty deaths worldwide. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well-recognized risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer, but estimates of their contributions to worldwide disease burden have been lacking. METHODS The prevalence of serologic markers of(More)
As part of the 2000 Global Burden of Disease study, we quantified the death and disability from injection-associated infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We modelled the fraction of incident infections attributable to health care injections in the year 2000 on the basis of the annual number(More)
A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in 2005 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 1611 cases were reported between 1 March and 31 December 2005 (attack rate 40/100,000). The epidemic curve suggested a continuing common source outbreak. Cases were centred around open sewage drains that crossed the old city. The attack rate was significantly(More)
Insecticide-treated mosquito nets are effective in reducing malaria transmission and mortality, yet they are underused for prevention. In this study, 561 households in 33 clusters were surveyed to estimate the coverage of net ownership and the frequency of use according to selected characteristics. Of the 540 participating household heads, 247 (46%) owned(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. METHODS We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for > or = one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February - May(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe injection practices worldwide in terms of frequency and safety. DESIGN Literature review. The global burden of disease project of the World Health Organization defined 14 regions on the basis of geography and mortality patterns. Data sources included published studies and unpublished WHO reports. Studies were reviewed by using a(More)
OBJECTIVE Poor injection practices transmit potentially life-threatening pathogens. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. METHODS The incidence of injection-associated hepatitis B virus(More)
Two months after the December 2004 tsunami in Tamil Nadu, India, we surveyed adults aged 18 years or older in a severely affected coastal village using structured interviews and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=9.4%, 17.1%), and odds of posttraumatic stress disorder(More)
OBJECTIVE To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. METHODS A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical(More)
OBJECTIVE Reused syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B and C in Pakistan, a country facing a growing epidemic of these infections. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with receiving at least one injection during the past 3 months in an urban and a rural area in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS A(More)