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(Environmental burden of disease series) 1.Needlestick injuries-complications 2.Wounds, Stab-complications 3.Blood-borne pathogens 4.Hepatitis B-etiology 5.Hepatitis C-etiology 6.HIV infections Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the(More)
Human monkeypox is a zoonotic smallpox-like disease caused by an orthopoxvirus of interhuman transmissibility too low to sustain spread in susceptible populations. In February 1997, 88 cases of febrile pustular rash were identified for the previous 12 months in 12 villages of the Katako-Kombe Health Zone, Democratic Republic of Congo (attack rate = 22 per(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe injection practices worldwide in terms of frequency and safety. DESIGN Literature review. The global burden of disease project of the World Health Organization defined 14 regions on the basis of geography and mortality patterns. Data sources included published studies and unpublished WHO reports. Studies were reviewed by using a(More)
OBJECTIVE To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. METHODS A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical(More)
OBJECTIVE Poor injection practices transmit potentially life-threatening pathogens. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. METHODS The incidence of injection-associated hepatitis B virus(More)
BACKGROUND Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. METHODS We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for > or = one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February - May(More)
BACKGROUND On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of(More)
A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for calculating the estimates described in this document can be obtained from WHO/PHE. Rapiti, Elisabetta. Sharps injuries : assessing the burden of disease from sharps injuries to health-care workers at national and local levels / Elisabetta Rapiti, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Yvan Hutin.
BACKGROUND Measles is often underreported. We evaluated the sensitivity of the measles surveillance in 2 districts of West Bengal in 2005-2006. METHODS We sampled households with children aged <5 years in village clusters selected with probability proportional to size. We searched households door to door to identify World Health Organization-defined(More)