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G proteins of the Ras family function as molecular switches in many signalling cascades; however, little is known about where they become activated in living cells. Here we use FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based sensors to report on the spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1. Epidermal growth factor(More)
C3G is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1, and is activated via Crk adaptor protein. To understand the physiological role of C3G, we generated C3G knockout mice. C3G(-/-) homozygous mice died before embryonic day 7.5. The lethality was rescued by the expression of the human C3G transgene, which could be excised upon the expression of Cre(More)
Many receptors for neuropeptides and hormones are coupled with the heterotrimeric G(i) protein, which activates the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascade through both the alpha- and betagamma-subunits of G(i). The betagamma-subunit activates the ERK/MAPK cascade through tyrosine kinase. Constitutively active G(alpha)i2 (gip2) isolated(More)
Influenza virus-infected cultured cells undergo apoptosis after an increment of Fas (APO-1/CD95) on the cell surface. By flow cytometry, cell surface Fas-ligand was detected in virus-infected cells with a time course similar to that of Fas. Moreover, Fas and Fas-ligand were co-expressed in those cells. The mode of induction, however, appeared to be distinct(More)
Microtubule-associated protein-4 (MAP-4), a major MAP in proliferating cells, consists of a microtubule-binding domain and a projection domain protruding from the microtubule wall. The former contains a Pro-rich region and an assembly-promoting (AP) sequence region which is common to the neuron-specific MAPs, MAP-2 and tau1. In this paper, we describe the(More)
v-crk is an oncogene identified originally in CT10 chicken tumor virus. C3G, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1 and R-Ras, is postulated to transduce the oncogenic signal of v-Crk to c-Jun kinase (JNK). We have found that R-Ras, but not Rap1, mediates JNK activation by v-Crk in 293T and NIH 3T3 cells. Constitutively activated R-Ras,(More)
Changes in the number and proportion of osteopontin mRNA (Opn) expressing osteocytes and osteoclasts caused by the mechanical stress applied during experimental tooth movement were examined in the present study. Opn expression was detected in the osteocytes on the pressure side at the early stage, and gradually spread to those on the tension side and also(More)
We studied the regulation of three closely related members of Ras family G proteins, R-Ras, TC21 (also known as R-Ras2), and M-Ras (R-Ras3). Guanine nucleotide exchange of R-Ras and TC21 was promoted by RasGRF, C3G, CalDAG-GEFI, CalDAG-GEFII (RasGRP), and CalDAG-GEFIII both in 293T cells and in vitro. By contrast, guanine nucleotide exchange of M-Ras was(More)
H1 histone of mouse lymphoma L5178Y was fractionated into five subtypes, I-V, by Bio-Rex 70 column chromatography. The rates of synthesis of subtypes III and V were higher than those of I, II, and IV, as determined by the measurement of [3H]lysine incorporation. The degradation of the subtype was estimated assuming first order kinetics; subtypes III and V(More)
The expression of cathepsin K. a novel collagenolytic enzyme specifically expressed in osteoclasts, was investigated in the rat maxillary dentoalveolar unit during experimental tooth movement by in situ hybridization histochemistry with a non-radioisotopic cRNA probe for rat cathepsin K. Orthodontic elastics were inserted into the interproximal space(More)