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Long-term ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on nontarget pests have received limited attention, more so in diverse small holder-based cropping systems of the developing world. Field trials conducted over 10 years in northern China show that mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) have progressively increased population sizes and(More)
Over the past 16 years, vast plantings of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have helped to control several major insect pests and reduce the need for insecticide sprays. Because broad-spectrum insecticides kill arthropod natural enemies that provide biological control of pests, the decrease in(More)
Cadherins belong to one of the families of animal glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Recent literatures showed that the cadherin-like in midgut of several insects served as the receptor of Bt toxin Cry1A and the variation of cadherin-like is related to insect’s resistance to Cry1A. The full-length cDNA encoding cadherin-like(More)
Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the(More)
Antennal olfaction is extremely important for insect survival, mediating key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. Multiple antennal proteins are involved in olfactory signal transduction pathways. Of these, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) confer specificity on olfactory sensory neuron(More)
Detached leaf bioassays, open field tests and cage tests were conducted to evaluate the control efficacy of two transgenic rice lines, expressing Cry1Ac and CpTI, against Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) during 2005-2006 in Fuzhou, China. Bioassay results showed that cumulative feeding areas of C. medinalis on transgenic lines were significantly lower than(More)
Sensitivities of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) field populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein CrylAc were monitored during 1998-2000 in China. A total of 41 strains was sampled, and most of them were collected from Bt cotton planting regions. The range of IC50 values (concentration producing 50% inhibition of larval development to(More)
Bioassays and binding tests between Cry toxins (CrylAa, CrylAb, CrylAc, and Cry2Ab) and brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from larvae of a Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt)-susceptible (96S) and two CrylAc-resistant strains (BtR and LFR10) were conducted for investigating cross-resistance of CrylAc-resistant strains to Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa armigera(More)
Lygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. This study reports on its flight potential examined by a flight-mill system. We found that 10-d-old mated females engaged in flight over the greatest distance (40.1 +/- 5.2 km) and duration (7.7 +/- 1.0 h) in 24-h flight assays in relation to age, sex, and mating status. Optimum temperature for(More)
To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between(More)