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BACKGROUND Numerous interventions have been shown to increase physical activity but have not been ranked by effectiveness or cost. PURPOSE This study provides a systematic review of physical activity interventions and calculates their cost-effectiveness ratios. METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted (5579 articles) and 91 effective(More)
OBJECTIVE The high prevalence of cigarette smoking among substance-abusing patients has raised concern. This study assessed the prevalence of and factors related to smoking cessation services and smoke-free policies in substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States. METHODS Facility-level data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of(More)
INTRODUCTION Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. METHODS The 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population(More)
AIMS To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in(More)
OBJECTIVES This study compared marijuana use characteristics and quit behaviors between adults with and without depression or serious psychological distress (SPD). METHODS Drawing data for 39,133 non-institutionalized adults from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we assessed marijuana use status, frequent use, dependence or abuse, and quit(More)
BACKGROUND The sweeping obesity epidemic could further increase the incidence of functional limitations in the U.S. rapidly aging population. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults. METHODS Study sample came from 1992 to 2010 waves of the Health and(More)
BACKGROUND Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. METHODS A representative cohort of U.S. smokers(More)
OBJECTIVES Little cigars and cigarillos may resemble cigarettes, but may be less expensive and can be purchased singly and in flavored varieties. We used two major U.S. surveys to investigate use of cigarillos and cigarettes. METHODS The 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey ascertained cigar use by brand and type (little(More)