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An anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process for ammonia-rich wastewater treatment has not been reported at temperatures below 15 degrees C. This study used a gel carrier with entrapped anammox bacteria to obtain a stable nitrogen removal performance at low temperatures. In a continuous feeding test, a high nitrogen conversion rate (6.2 kg N m(-3)(More)
In order to assess the stability of nitrogen removal systems utilizing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), it is necessary to study the toxic effects of nitrite on these biochemical reactions. In this study, the effects of nitrite on anammox bacteria entrapped in gel carriers were investigated using batch and continuous feeding tests. The results showed(More)
This study evaluated the nitrogen removal performance of polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carriers containing entrapped heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria. A laboratory-scale denitrification reactor was operated for treatment of synthetic nitrate wastewater. The nitrogen removal activity gradually increased in continuous feed experiments, reaching 4.4 kg N(More)
Empirical data that describe the metabolic balance of stream ecosystems in human-dominated watersheds are scarce. We measured ecosystem metabolism in 23 open-canopied lowland streams draining urban and agricultural areas in the Fuji River Basin, central Japan. Gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR) were estimated using the diurnal(More)
Anammox bacteria are chemoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor and with CO(2) as the main carbon source. The effects of inorganic carbon (IC) limitation on anammox bacteria were investigated using continuous feeding tests. In this study, a gel carrier with entrapped anammox sludge was used. It was clearly shown(More)
To facilitate the application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) to a nitrogen removal process, the effects of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, and Mo) on anammox bacteria entrapped in gel carriers were examined by conducting continuous feeding tests for each metal. The results show that all anammox activities decreased by more than 10 % when influent(More)
The anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been regarded as an attractive alternative process to treat wastewater containing high ammonium concentrations. By the implementation of anammox process at moderately low temperatures (<25°C), the anammox process will be applied to more various industrial wastewater treatments. In this study, we(More)
Stable nitrogen removal from the digester supernatant for sludge via the nitritation-anammox process under steady operations of ammonium concentration and flow rate has been often reported. In this study, the effects of four non-steady operations, intentional fluctuations of influent concentration from 890 to 650 mg-N/L and hydraulic load of the 10%(More)
A pilot plant involving a nitritation-anammox process was operated for treating digester supernatant. In the preceding nitritation process, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized in gel carriers, and the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria was suppressed by heat-shock treatment. For the following anammox process, in order to maintain the anammox(More)
Methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity was characterized. An enrichment culture entrapped in a polyethylene glycol gel carrier was designed for practical uses of wastewater treatment. Batch experiments demonstrated that anammox activity decreased with increases in methanol concentration, and relative activity reached to 29%(More)