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In this paper, we employ probabilistic neural network (PNN) with image and data processing techniques to implement a general purpose automated leaf recognition for plant classification. 12 leaf features are extracted and orthogonalized into 5 principal variables which consist the input vector of the PNN. The PNN is trained by 1800 leaves to classify 32(More)
The development of noninvasive methods to detect and monitor tumors continues to be a major challenge in oncology. We used digital polymerase chain reaction-based technologies to evaluate the ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types. We found that ctDNA was detectable in >75% of patients with(More)
Formulation of speech separation as a supervised learning problem has shown considerable promise. In its simplest form, a supervised learning algorithm, typically a deep neural network, is trained to learn a mapping from noisy features to a time-frequency representation of the target of interest. Traditionally, the ideal binary mask (IBM) is used as the(More)
The policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the surface ozone concentration that would be present over the US in the absence of North American anthropogenic emissions. It is intended to provide a baseline for risk and exposure assessments used in setting the National Ambient Air Quality Standard(More)
In real-world environments, human speech is usually distorted by both reverberation and background noise, which have negative effects on speech intelligibility and speech quality. They also cause performance degradation in many speech technology applications, such as automatic speech recognition. Therefore, the dereverberation and denoising problems must be(More)
PSD-95, a principal scaffolding component of the postsynaptic density, is targeted to synapses by palmitoylation, where it couples NMDA receptor stimulation to production of nitric oxide (NO) by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Here, we show that PSD-95 is physiologically S-nitrosylated. We identify cysteines 3 and 5, which are palmitoylated, as sites(More)
Despite considerable effort, monaural (single-microphone) algorithms capable of increasing the intelligibility of speech in noise have remained elusive. Successful development of such an algorithm is especially important for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, given their particular difficulty in noisy backgrounds. In the current study, an algorithm based on(More)
Monaural speech segregation has been a very challenging problem for decades. By casting speech segregation as a binary classification problem, recent advances have been made in computational auditory scene analysis on segregation of both voiced and unvoiced speech. So far, pitch and amplitude modulation spectrogram have been used as two main kinds of(More)
[1] Reducing surface ozone (O 3) to concentrations in compliance with the national air quality standard has proven to be challenging, despite tighter controls on O 3 precursor emissions over the past few decades. New evidence indicates that isoprene emissions changed considerably from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s owing to land-use changes in the eastern(More)
[1] Observations of CO and NO y from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission over the northwest Pacific and from two Chinese ground stations (Hong Kong and Lin An) during spring 2001 are used in conjunction with an optimal estimation inverse model to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NO x. A priori(More)