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The development of noninvasive methods to detect and monitor tumors continues to be a major challenge in oncology. We used digital polymerase chain reaction-based technologies to evaluate the ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types. We found that ctDNA was detectable in >75% of patients with(More)
In this paper, we employ probabilistic neural network (PNN) with image and data processing techniques to implement a general purpose automated leaf recognition for plant classification. 12 leaf features are extracted and orthogonalized into 5 principal variables which consist the input vector of the PNN. The PNN is trained by 1800 leaves to classify 32(More)
Formulation of speech separation as a supervised learning problem has shown considerable promise. In its simplest form, a supervised learning algorithm, typically a deep neural network, is trained to learn a mapping from noisy features to a time-frequency representation of the target of interest. Traditionally, the ideal binary mask (IBM) is used as the(More)
A series of aggressive measures was launched by the Chinese government to reduce pollutant emissions from Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic Games. Observations at Miyun, a rural site 100 km downwind of the Beijing urban center, show significant decreases in concentrations of O3, CO, NOy, and SO2 during August 2008, relative to August(More)
Formulating speech separation as a binary classification problem has been shown to be effective. While good separation performance is achieved in matched test conditions using kernel support vector machines (SVMs), separation in unmatched conditions involving new speakers and environments remains a big challenge. A simple yet effective method to cope with(More)
In real-world environments, human speech is usually distorted by both reverberation and background noise, which have negative effects on speech intelligibility and speech quality. They also cause performance degradation in many speech technology applications, such as automatic speech recognition. Therefore, the dereverberation and denoising problems must be(More)
[1] A global three-dimensional chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) was modified to permit treatment of a limited spatial regime with resolution higher than that adopted for the global background. Identified as a one-way nested grid formulation, the model was applied to a simulation of CO over Asia during spring 2001. Differences between results obtained(More)
Despite considerable effort, monaural (single-microphone) algorithms capable of increasing the intelligibility of speech in noise have remained elusive. Successful development of such an algorithm is especially important for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, given their particular difficulty in noisy backgrounds. In the current study, an algorithm based on(More)
[1] Reducing surface ozone (O3) to concentrations in compliance with the national air quality standard has proven to be challenging, despite tighter controls on O3 precursor emissions over the past few decades. New evidence indicates that isoprene emissions changed considerably from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s owing to land-use changes in the eastern(More)
Esophageal cancer ranks sixth in cancer death. To explore its genetic origins, we conducted exomic sequencing on 11 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and 12 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) from the United States. Interestingly, inactivating mutations of NOTCH1 were identified in 21% of ESCCs but not in EACs. There was a substantial disparity in(More)