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Sensory experience in early postnatal life shapes neuronal connections in the brain. Here we report that the local synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dendrites plays an important role in this process. We found that dendritic spines of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the visual cortex in mutant mice lacking dendritic Bdnf mRNA and thus(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine tract at the N terminus of huntingtin. This mutation reduces levels of BDNF in the striatum, likely by inhibiting cortical Bdnf gene expression and anterograde transport of BDNF from the cerebral cortex to the striatum. Substantial evidence suggests that this reduction of striatal BDNF(More)
Huntington's disease (HD), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by relatively selective degeneration of striatal neurons, is caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract of the huntingtin (htt) protein. The htt mutation reduces levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the striatum, likely by inhibiting cortical BDNF gene(More)
Neurotrophin signaling is crucial for neuron growth. While the "signaling endosomes" hypothesis is one of the accepted models, the molecular machinery that drives retrograde axonal transport of TrkB signaling endosomes is largely unknown. In particular, mechanisms recruiting dynein to TrkB signaling endosomes have not been elucidated. Here, using snapin(More)
One pathological hallmark in ALS motor neurons (MNs) is axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. A fundamental question remains: does reduced degradation of those mitochondria by an impaired autophagy-lysosomal system contribute to mitochondrial pathology? We reveal MN-targeted progressive lysosomal deficits accompanied by impaired autophagic(More)
Neuronal death occurs at several stages during embryogenesis and early postnatal development; however, it is unknown how the survival of immature neurons at their origin is regulated before these cells migrate to their final destination. Striatal projection neurons, known as medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), in both the direct and indirect pathways are(More)
Autophagy is an important homeostatic process that functions by eliminating defective organelles and aggregated proteins over a neuron's lifetime. One pathological hallmark in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked motor neurons (MNs) is axonal accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs), thus raising a fundamental question as to whether reduced(More)
BACKGROUND The capacity of electronic health record (EHR) data to guide targeted surveillance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We sought to leverage EHR data for predicting risk of progressing from CKD to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to help inform surveillance of CKD among vulnerable patients from the healthcare safety-net. METHODS We(More)