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The discovery of artemisinin more than 30 years ago provided a completely new antimalarial structural prototype; that is, a molecule with a pharmacophoric peroxide bond in a unique 1,2,4-trioxane heterocycle. Available evidence suggests that artemisinin and related peroxidic antimalarial drugs exert their parasiticidal activity subsequent to reductive(More)
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that remains of considerable public health significance in tropical and subtropical environments. Since the mainstay of schistosomiasis control is chemotherapy with a single drug, praziquantel, drug resistance is a concern. Here, we present new data on the antischistosomal properties of representative synthetic(More)
In this paper, we propose an analytical approach to predict the performance of web service composition built on BPEL. The approach first translates web service composition specification into Stochastic Petri Nets. From the SPN model and its corresponding continuous-time Markov chain, we derive the analytical performance estimates of process-completion-time.(More)
Ozonide OZ439 is a synthetic peroxide antimalarial drug candidate designed to provide a single-dose oral cure in humans. OZ439 has successfully completed Phase I clinical trials, where it was shown to be safe at doses up to 1,600 mg and is currently undergoing Phase IIa trials in malaria patients. Herein, we describe the discovery of OZ439 and the(More)
The discovery of artemisinin in 1971 initiated a new era in antimalarial chemotherapy. Although the clinically useful semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives are rapid acting and potent antimalarial drugs, they have short half-lives and must be administered over a period of 5-7 days, leading to noncompliance and recrudescence. With this in view, many(More)
OBJECTIVES The trematocidal properties of a synthetic peroxide, 1,2,4-trioxolane (OZ78) were determined both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS Two weeks post-infection Echinostoma caproni-infected mice were administered single oral doses of 400-1000 mg/kg OZ78. Fasciola hepatica-infected rats were treated orally with 50-400 mg/kg OZ78 3 and 8-9 weeks(More)
Sixteen alkyl-substituted dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes (7,8,15, 16-tetraoxadispiro[]hexadecanes) were synthesized to explore dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxane SAR and to identify tetraoxanes with better oral antimalarial activity than prototype tetraoxane 1 (WR 148999). The tetraoxanes were prepared either by peroxidation of the corresponding cyclohexanone(More)
The rapid spread of triclabendazole resistance in veterinary medicine is an important motivation for the discovery and development of novel fasciocidal drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the fasciocidal properties of 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane (MT04 and MT14) and 1,2,4-trioxane (ST16 and ST28) analogues of the fasciocidal drug candidate OZ78, a(More)
Peroxidic antimalarials such as the semisynthetic artemisinins are critically important in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Nevertheless, their peroxide bond-dependent mode of action is still not well understood. Using combination experiments with cultured Plasmodium falciparum cells, we investigated the interactions of the nitroxide radical spin(More)
We evaluated the in vivo antischistosomal activities of 11 structurally diverse synthetic peroxides. Of all compounds tested, ozonide (1,2,4-trioxolane) OZ418 had the highest activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni, with total and female worm burden reductions of 80 and 90% (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treatment of S. haematobium-infected mice(More)