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Learning Villages (LV) is a game-based computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) platform, which facilitates studentspsila issue-based discussion in a massively multiplayer gaming environment to attain the goal of argumentative knowledge construction. However, such construction can be achieved only if students can make argumentative elaborations(More)
The characterization of process-related impurities and forced degradants of alogliptin benzoate (Alb) in bulk drugs and a stability-indicating HPLC method for the separation and quantification of all the impurities were investigated. Alb was found to be unstable under acid and alkali stress conditions and two major degradation products (Imp-F and Imp-G)(More)
Early prediction of acute rejection (AR) is important in clinical practice of organ and tissue transplantation. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II genes in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) following skin grafting and whether their expression can be used as early markers for AR.(More)
HLA-G Expression in grafts and serum has been shown to improve graft acceptance. However, its expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) during acute rejection (AR) remains unknown. In this study, we serially monitored HLA-G expression on CD4(+) and CD8(+) PBLs of 66 recipients undergoing renal transplantation using flow cytometry at different time(More)
Cherubism is a rare, nonneoplastic, self-limiting fibro-osseous that occurs in children. Affected children usually appear normal at birth. Lesions are characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrovascular tissue containing many multinucleated giant cells. Most studies have reported cherubism to be familial and with bilateral involvement of the(More)
Eleven potential impurities, including process-related compounds and degradation products, have been analyzed by comprehensive studies on the manufacturing process of clevidipine butyrate. Possible formation mechanisms could also be devised. MS and NMR techniques have been used for the structural characterization of three previously unreported impurities(More)
The occurrence of learning transfer is an important criterion for checking whether learning has taken place. In recent years, simulation games have been applied widely in the field of skill training and education. But research about whether learning transfer occurs in simulation games is still limited. This paper aims to examine whether learning transfer(More)
During the synthesis of Azilsartan (AZS), it was speculated that 15 potential impurities would arise. This study investigated the possible mechanism for the formation of 14 of them, and their structures were characterized and confirmed by IR, NMR, and MS techniques. In addition, an efficient chromatographic method was developed to separate and quantify(More)
Liquid chromatographic separation of mirabegron enantiomers on Chiralpak AY-H, a column coated with amylose tris-(5-chloro-2-methylphenylcarbamate) as a chiral stationary phase, was studied under normal phase conditions. The influence of ethanol content (30-45%) and column temperature (20-40°C) on retention, resolution and separation were evaluated.(More)