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Cattle are major hosts of Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves is associated with retarded growth, weight loss and calf mortality, and zoonotic infections in humans. In many areas, cow-calf glazing system is an important beef cattle rearing method with distinct advantages in terms of cost and the labor required. However, few(More)
The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Wild rodents are naturally infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium; thus, they are potential reservoirs of the parasites. Mice are common rodents frequently found in agricultural areas and have many(More)
We focus on an affective aspect of communications by e-mail. In this study university students communicated their information to anonymous companions by e-mail to examine the relations between their affective traits, affective states and affective interpretations. Before the e-mail communication, as the affective traits, they were asked to give the(More)
This paper focuses on communication by e-mail. An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence the degree of emotional cues transmitted during e-mail communication has on the emotions experienced by the senders and receivers. Twenty-two participants of this experiment were divided into two groups based on the degrees of emotional cues transmitted:(More)
This study compared the exchange of emotional content in PC and mobile e-mail in business-related discussions. Forty American business people were divided into two groups (PC and mobile e-mail users) and were then assigned to anonymous discussion pairs who exchanged a total of six messages on a predetermined topic. When a message was sent, the writers(More)
As a first step to barrier emotional troubles in educational computer-mediated communication such as e-learning using mobile devices or “m-learning”, emotional strategies used in mobile phone email in response to four kinds of emotion evocation situation (joy, sadness, anger, and guilt) are explored. In this study, the emotional strategies in different(More)
Over recent years the importance of game-based learning situation has seen a remarkable growth. Existing computer-based platform that utilize the Internet so as to provide effective access to information regarding for exchange of ideas and knowledge aim to create online community, such attempts target only on traditional Internet users excluding an ongoing(More)
This study proposes the development of a smart sensing measurement system using a mat-type sensor in order to obtain sole-electrocardiogram data from soles and toe-photoplethysmogram data from toes. In addition, the proposed measurement system can calculate pulse wave velocity from sole-ECG and toe-PPG. The subjective experiments revealed that the developed(More)