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In a space environment such as Space Shuttle or Space Station, animal experiments with aquatic species in a closed system pose a crucial problem in maintaining their water quality for a long term. In nature, ammonia as an animal wastes is converted by nitrifying bacteria to nitrite or nitrate compounds, which usually become nitrogen sources for plants. Thus(More)
Electroreflectance (ER) spectroscopy was used for the estimation of the orientation of heme in a horse heart cytochrome c molecule immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid on both polycrystalline gold (Au) and single crystalline Au(111) electrodes. The intensity ratio of the ER signal of p-polarized incident light against(More)
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