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The rates of cell attachment of the anchorage-dependent mammalian cell line Vero to the gelatin-based macroporous microcarrier Cultispher-G were determined under various conditions. An optimal rate of attachment (0.98 x 10(-2) min(-1)) occurred by an intermittent stirring regimen of 3 min stirring at 40 rpm per 33 min. This stirring regimen appeared to(More)
Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) provide time synchronized electrical measurements at many nodes across the power grid. This wide area time synchronization is made possible via GPS time transfer. Unfortunately, the GPS civilian signal is weak and vulnerable to signal interferences such as jamming and meaconing. As such, the GPS-based time synchronization of(More)
A novel Multi-Receiver Vector Tracking (MRVT) architecture for the joint tracking of multiple GPS receivers to determine the reference position and attitude of a rigid body is presented. The reduction in overall search space, from the state variables of each individual receiver to a single reference position on the rigid body and the attitude of the rigid(More)
Reliable and precise electrical wave measurements are essential to the stability and efficiency of a power system. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), also known as synchrophasors, are devices that provide precise synchronized voltage magnitude and phase measurements at a high sampling frequency. Widely regarded as one of the most vital devices in monitoring(More)
Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) provide timesynchronized, accurate and precise measurements of instantaneous voltages and currents at many locations across the electrical power system. The current state-of-the-art time transfer architecture for PMUs uses GPS time synchronization. The dependence on GPS for time synchronization introduces new vulnerabilities(More)
GPS and vision position sensing are complementary. Under open sky environments, GPS sensing is superior due to unimpeded strong signal reception while vision sensing suffers from the lack of unique features. In urban settings, however, vision sensing becomes superior with the abundance of unique characterizing vision features while the GPS sensing(More)
Modern power distribution systems are incorporating Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to measure the instantaneous voltage and current phasors at different nodes in the power grid. These PMU devices depend on GPS for precise time and synchronization. However, GPS L1 C/A signals are vulnerable because of its low power and unencrypted signal structure.(More)
We designed and built a collective robot swarm navigation platform, called Shinerbot, inspired by the emergent navigation behavior of the Golden Shiner Fish. Unlike traditional navigation robots that require location information, path-planning and communication between networked elements, each Shinerbot performs only two navigation operations. Each(More)