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ATP has been shown to be a taste bud afferent transmitter, but the cells responsible for, and the mechanism of, its release have not been identified. Using CHO cells expressing high-affinity neurotransmitter receptors as biosensors, we show that gustatory stimuli cause receptor cells to secrete ATP through pannexin 1 hemichannels in mouse taste buds. ATP(More)
Nervous or hormonal stimulation of many exocrine glands evokes release of cellular K+ (ref. 1), as originally demonstrated in mammalian salivary glands2,3, and is associated with a marked increase in membrane conductance1,4,5. We now demonstrate directly, by using the patch-clamp technique6, the existence of a K+ channel with a large conductance localized(More)
Taste buds are aggregates of 50-100 cells, only a fraction of which express genes for taste receptors and intracellular signaling proteins. We combined functional calcium imaging with single-cell molecular profiling to demonstrate the existence of two distinct cell types in mouse taste buds. Calcium imaging revealed that isolated taste cells responded with(More)
Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from(More)
Precise localization and characterization of conductance pathways in glandular epithelia have so far proved difficult. The patch-clamp technique for high resolution current recording, which has already been applied successfully to a number of electrically excitable cells, can in principle overcome these difficulties. We now report measurements of(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as central mediators in certain signalling events. In the heart, ROS have important functions in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac injury and in cytokine-stimulated hypertrophy. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the ROS-responsive serine/threonine kinases. Previous studies showed(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by a variety of conditions associated with oxidative stress. We demonstrated that mildly oxidized LDL markedly induces HO-1 in human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cell cocultures and that its induction results in the attenuation of monocyte chemotaxis resulting from treatment with mildly oxidized LDL in vitro. To(More)
The distribution patterns of cystatin C and apolipoprotein E (apo E) were studied immunocytochemically in the gerbil hippocampus before and after 5 min ischemia. In the controls, cystatin C was distributed mainly in astrocytes. In addition, a large number of dots positive for cystatin C were observed around the outlines of neuronal perikarya in the CA1(More)