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The gain of the vertical vestibuloocular reflex (VVOR), defined as eye velocity/head velocity was adapted in squirrel monkeys by employing visual-vestibular mismatch stimuli. VVOR gain, measured in the dark, could be trained to values between 0.4 and 1.5. Single-unit activity of vertical zone Purkinje cells was recorded from the flocculus and ventral(More)
Most excitable cells maintain tight control of intracellular Ca(2+) through coordinated interaction between plasma membrane and endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum. Quiescent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release machinery is essential for the survival and normal function of skeletal muscle. Here we show that subtle membrane deformations induce Ca(2+)(More)
Junctophilin (JP) mediates the close contact between cell surface and intracellular membranes in muscle cells ensuring efficient excitation-contraction coupling. Here we demonstrate that disruption of triad junction structure formed by the transverse tubular (TT) invagination of plasma membrane and terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by(More)
Although the generation of symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) is thought to derive from the abnormal activity of hypertrophic inferior olivary neurones, the actual mechanism of SPT has not yet been elucidated. We therefore investigated the relationship between SPT and the pathological process of inferior olivary hypertrophy (IOH). We examined 16 autopsied(More)
The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) motor learning can be induced chronically by wearing lenses for several weeks to months, or acutely by visual-vestibular mismatch for several hours. Cerebellar long term depression (LTD) has been proposed as a causal mechanism for acute learning. We demonstrate differences in retention of acutely and chronically acquired VOR(More)
The medulla contains central chemosensitive cells important for the maintenance of blood gas and pH homeostasis. To identify the intrinsic chemosensitive cells, we measured responses of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and H(+) ([H(+)](i)), and membrane potential of rat primary-cultured medullary cells to 6-s exposure to acidosis. The cells showed(More)
For multi-scale and multi-modal neural modeling, it is needed to handle multiple neural models described at different levels seamlessly. Database technology will become more important for these studies, specifically for downloading and handling the neural models seamlessly and effortlessly. To date, conventional neuroinformatics databases have solely been(More)
We have identified a novel epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeat-containing single-pass transmembrane protein that is specifically expressed in the developing and mature central nervous system. Sequence analysis revealed that the 10 EGF-like repeats in the extracellular domain are closely related to those of the developmentally important receptor Notch(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We performed this multicenter study to explore the full spectrum of the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings of cerebellar infarction, including patients with mild to severe illnesses. METHODS We studied 293 consecutive patients with cerebellar infarction diagnosed by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance(More)
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) comprises an outstanding system to perform studies that probe possible cerebellar roles in motor learning. Novel VOR gains can be induced (learned) by the wearing of minifying or magnifying lenses, and learning requires the presence of the cerebellum. Previously, it was shown that Purkinje cells change their head velocity(More)