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The gain of the vertical vestibuloocular reflex (VVOR), defined as eye velocity/head velocity was adapted in squirrel monkeys by employing visual-vestibular mismatch stimuli. VVOR gain, measured in the dark, could be trained to values between 0.4 and 1.5. Single-unit activity of vertical zone Purkinje cells was recorded from the flocculus and ventral(More)
Most excitable cells maintain tight control of intracellular Ca(2+) through coordinated interaction between plasma membrane and endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum. Quiescent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release machinery is essential for the survival and normal function of skeletal muscle. Here we show that subtle membrane deformations induce Ca(2+)(More)
The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) motor learning can be induced chronically by wearing lenses for several weeks to months, or acutely by visual-vestibular mismatch for several hours. Cerebellar long term depression (LTD) has been proposed as a causal mechanism for acute learning. We demonstrate differences in retention of acutely and chronically acquired VOR(More)
To prevent self-fertilization, apple has a gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism, part of a widespread intraspecific system, that is controlled by a multi-allelic locus. This attribute has been exploited in breeding programs for new cultivars. Likewise, many apple orchards depend on artificial pollination. Therefore, molecular analysis and early(More)
Junctophilin (JP) mediates the close contact between cell surface and intracellular membranes in muscle cells ensuring efficient excitation-contraction coupling. Here we demonstrate that disruption of triad junction structure formed by the transverse tubular (TT) invagination of plasma membrane and terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by(More)
In order to elucidate the mechanism of the pupillary control system, the internal property of the pupillary muscle plant, as well as the autonomic nervous input to the muscle plant, must be analyzed. In this study, we approach the problem first by constructing a new homeomorphic biomechanical model for the human pupillary muscle plant (forward dynamic(More)
Squirrel monkeys were trained using newly developed visual-vestibular mismatch paradigms to test the asymmetrical simultaneous induction of vertical vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gain changes in opposite directions (high and low) either in the upward and downward directions or in response to high- and low-frequency stimuli. The first paradigm consists of(More)
An efficient chimera formation method by tissue culture combined with grafting was studied in Brassica. Cabbage cultivars “Ruby-ball” and “YR-ranpou” (Brassica oleracea) were used for intervarietal chimera formation. Seven-day-old seedlings leaving one of two cotyledons were approach-grafted and cultured in vitro (AGSC method). Chimeric shoots were obtained(More)
We have identified a novel epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeat-containing single-pass transmembrane protein that is specifically expressed in the developing and mature central nervous system. Sequence analysis revealed that the 10 EGF-like repeats in the extracellular domain are closely related to those of the developmentally important receptor Notch(More)
In our previous study, we bred a stable cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line of tuber mustard by using distant hybridization and subsequent backcrosses. In this CMS plants, all floral organs are normal except the anthers, which are transformed into petals or tubular structures. Recently, 2 mitochondrial genes—atpA and orf220—that are distinctively present(More)