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Although the generation of symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) is thought to derive from the abnormal activity of hypertrophic inferior olivary neurones, the actual mechanism of SPT has not yet been elucidated. We therefore investigated the relationship between SPT and the pathological process of inferior olivary hypertrophy (IOH). We examined 16 autopsied(More)
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) comprises an outstanding system to perform studies that probe possible cerebellar roles in motor learning. Novel VOR gains can be induced (learned) by the wearing of minifying or magnifying lenses, and learning requires the presence of the cerebellum. Previously, it was shown that Purkinje cells change their head velocity(More)
Motor systems are under a continuous adaptive process to maintain behavior throughout developmental changes and disease, a process called motor learning. Simple behaviors with easily measurable inputs and outputs are best suited to understand the neuronal signals that contribute to the required motor learning. Considering simple behaviors, the(More)
The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) in concert with the optokinetic response (OKR) stabilizes vision during head motion. The VOR system characteristics are both compensatory and adaptively self-calibrated. A model was constructed to aid in the understanding of the roles of the cerebellum and other neuronal sites in the performance and adaptation of the(More)
Gain changes in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) during visual-vestibular mismatch stimulation serve as a model system for motor learning. The cerebellar flocculus and its target neurons in the brain stem (FTN) are candidates for the storage of these novel VOR gains. We have recently studied the changes in vertical flocculus Purkinje cells after chronic VOR(More)
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations in which human errors may cause fatal accidents. Currently we focused on the pupil of the eye which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and easily observable non-invasively from the outside of the body. We employed uneventful driving simulation to(More)
A new adaptive motor controller was constructed, and tested on the control of a 2-wheeled balancing robot in simulation and real world. The controller consists of a feedback (PD) controller and a cerebellar neuronal network model. The structure of the cerebellar model was configured based upon known anatomical neuronal connection in the cerebellar cortex.(More)
The cerebellar granule cells (GCs) have been proposed to perform lossless, adaptive spatio-temporal coding of incoming sensory/motor information required by downstream cerebellar circuits to support motor learning, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we use a physio-anatomically inspired bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network (biCNN) to selectively(More)
To acquire and maintain precise movement controls over a lifespan, changes in the physical and physiological characteristics of muscles must be compensated for adaptively. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in such adaptation. Changes in muscle characteristics are not always symmetrical. For example, it is unlikely that muscles that bend and straighten a(More)
A cerebellum–machine interface (CMI) was developed to test direct causality between single-unit cerebellar Purkinje cell activities and motor learning. The CMI converts Purkinje cell simple spike firing rates into a pulse width modulation signal that drives a single-joint robot arm. The CMI has no adaptive capability, thus any changes observed in the robot(More)