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Coordinated control of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis requires communication between organs and tissues. We identified a neuronal pathway that participates in the cross talk between the liver and adipose tissue. By studying a mouse model, we showed that adenovirus-mediated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-g2 in the(More)
Metabolic regulation in mammals requires communication between multiple organs and tissues. The rise in the incidence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, has renewed interest in interorgan communication. We used mouse models to explore the mechanism whereby obesity enhances pancreatic beta cell mass, pathophysiological(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Anti-GAD antibodies (GADA) are associated with the progression of stiff person syndrome and other neurological diseases, as well as the immune-mediated (type 1) diabetes. GABA is one of the most widely distributed neurotransmitters, but(More)
The Shinkansen is a safe, reliable, mass, and rapid public transportation system in Japan. The authors discuss COMTRAC in the Shinkansen. First, they look into the concept and technology of fail-safe in railways. Second, they explain COMTRAC and its fault-tolerant computer systems. Finally, they give several kinds of field data accumulated during the past(More)
Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has a significant impact on glucose metabolism. However, the effects of IL-6 on insulin secretion from pancreatic b-cells are controversial. Therefore, we analyzed IL-6 effects on pancreatic b-cell functions both in vivo and in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—First, to examine the effects of IL-6 on in vivo insulin(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION We investigated impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake on diabetic patients and characterized those with disaster-susceptible diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS We enrolled 497 diabetic patients who had been followed at hospitals in devastated areas. We collected metabolic parameters prospectively, 1 and 3 months after the earthquake,(More)