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Cells of "Paenibacillus fukuinensis" D2 produced chitosanase into surrounding medium, in the presence of colloidal chitosan or glucosamine. The gene of this enzyme was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to site-directed mutation and deletion analyses. The nucleotide sequence indicated that the chitosanase was composed of 797 amino acids and its molecular(More)
The genome of influenza A virus is comprised of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments. Although the products of all eight vRNA segments must be present for viral replication, little is known about the mechanism(s) responsible for incorporation of these segments into virions. Two models have been proposed for the generation of infectious virions containing eight(More)
The genome of influenza A virus consists of eight single-strand negative-sense RNA segments, each comprised of a coding region and a noncoding region. The noncoding region of the NS segment is thought to provide the signal for packaging; however, we recently showed that the coding regions located at both ends of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments(More)
At the final step in viral replication, the viral genome must be incorporated into progeny virions, yet the genomic regions required for this process are largely unknown in RNA viruses, including influenza virus. Recently, it was reported that both ends of the neuraminidase (NA) coding region are critically important for incorporation of this vRNA segment(More)
We previously demonstrated that a systematic passage of a pathogenic field isolate of Sendai virus (SeV), the Hamamatsu strain, in embryonated eggs caused attenuation of virulence to mice, and we isolated viral clones of distinct virulence (K. Kiyotani et al. Arch. Virol. 146:893-908, 2001). One of the clones, E15cl2, which was obtained from the virus at(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic mitogen, plays a crucial role in angiogenesis under various pathophysiological conditions. We have recently demonstrated that VEGF(165), one of the VEGF isoforms, binds connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and that its angiogenic activity is inhibited in the VEGF(165).CTGF complex form (Inoki,(More)
ADAM28, a member of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, has two isoforms, membrane-type form (ADAM28m) and secreted form (ADAM28s). Although ADAM28 is expressed and synthesized in a precursor form (proADAM28) by lymphocytes and some cancer cells, its activation mechanism and substrates remain unclear. Here, we report that proADAM28s of 65kDa(More)
Hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase is the key enzyme for production of the D and J series of prostanoids in the immune system and mast cells. We isolated a cDNA for the rat enzyme, crystallized the recombinant enzyme, and determined the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme complexed with glutathione at 2.3 A resolution. The enzyme is the first(More)
Aortic insufficiency (AI) is a serious complication for patients on long-term support with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). Postoperative aortic valve opening is an important predictor of AI. A system is presently available that can promote native aortic flow by reducing rotational speed (RS) for defined intervals. However, this system can cause a(More)
Envelope viruses maturate by macromolecule assembly and budding. To investigate these steps, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) by co-expression of structural proteins of Sendai virus (SeV), a prototype of the family Paramyxoviridae. Simultaneous expression of matrix (M), nucleo- (N), fusion (F), and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins resulted(More)