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Accumulating evidence suggests that ubiquitination plays a role in cancer by changing the function of key cellular proteins. Previously, we isolated BCA2 gene from a library enriched for breast tumor mRNAs. The BCA2 protein is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase and is overexpressed in human breast tumors. In order to deduce the biochemical and biological(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we(More)
Melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to be associated with food intake in addition to body color change in teleosts. MSH is encoded by a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene together with endorphin (END). To assess the significance of MSH to biological activities, we determined the structure and evaluated the expression of POMC mRNA in barfin(More)
The RING finger family of proteins possess ubiquitin ligase activity and play pivotal roles in protein degradation and receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this study, we examined whether the breast cancer-associated gene 2 (BCA2), a novel RING domain protein, has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and investigated its expression status in breast tumors. The(More)
Previously, we have shown that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) expression is inversely correlated with disease progression in breast cancer and is associated with poor outcome. To further investigate the role of IGFBP-7 in the growth and metastatic behavior of breast cancer, primary breast tumors and metastatic tumors derived from the(More)
Stanniocalcin (STC) is a homodimeric glycoprotein hormone implicated in calcium and phosphate regulation in both teleost fish and mammals. In the present study, immunostaining with salmon STC antiserum demonstrated that STC cells were localized in both the corpuscles of Stannius (CS) and in specific cells of the distal renal tubules of the silver arawana,(More)
In this study, we created a clinically relevant model using NOD/SCID mice engrafted with human bone fragments in both right and left flanks, and show that the human bone implants are viable and functional for more than 6 mo. To investigate the growth and metastatic behavior of breast cancer, human primary breast tumor specimens were transplanted into human(More)
Defects in ubiquitin E3 ligases are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer, because of their central role in the control of diverse signaling pathways. RING E3 ligases promote the ubiquitination of proteins that are essential to a variety of cellular events. Identification of which ubiquitin ligases specifically affect(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers. We previously have shown that IGFBP7 expression is inversely correlated with disease progression and poor outcome in breast cancer. Overexpression of IGFBP7 in MDA-MB-468, a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, resulted in(More)
The BCA2 protein contains a RING H2 finger and a Zn finger near the N-terminus and has E3 ligase activity. RING finger proteins play critical roles in mediating the transfer of ubiquitin and ubiquitin like modifiers to heterologous substrates as well as to the RING finger proteins themselves. Protein modification by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-related(More)