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Amyloid formation, a complex process involving many intermediate states, is proposed to be the driving force for amyloid-related toxicity in common degenerative diseases. Unfortunately, the details of this process have been obscured by the limitations in the methods that can follow this reaction in real time. We show that alternative pathways of aggregation(More)
In the commonly used nucleation-dependent model of protein aggregation, aggregation proceeds only after a lag phase in which the concentration of energetically unfavorable nuclei reaches a critical value. The formation of oligomeric species prior to aggregation can be difficult to detect by current spectroscopic techniques. By using real-time (19)F NMR(More)
Phase distortions due to scattering in random media restrict optical focusing beyond one transport mean free path. However, scattering can be compensated for by applying a correction to the illumination wavefront using spatial light modulators. One method of obtaining the wavefront correction is by iterative determination using an optimization algorithm. In(More)
Fluorine is a valuable probe for investigating the interactions of biological molecules because of its favorable NMR characteristics, its small size, and its near total absence from biology. Advances in biosynthetic methods allow fluorine to be introduced into peptides and proteins with high precision, and the increasing sensitivity of NMR spectrometers has(More)
The antimicrobial peptide MSI-78 serves as a model system for studying interactions of bioactive peptides with membranes. Using a series of MSI-78 peptides that incorporate l-4,4,4-trifluoroethylglycine, a small and sensitive (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance probe, we investigated how the local structure and dynamics of the peptide change when it binds to(More)
Helix-coil equilibrium studies are important for understanding helix formation in protein folding, and for helical foldamer design. The quantitative description of a helix using statistical mechanical models is based on experimentally derived helix propensities and the assumption that helix propensity is position-independent. To investigate this assumption,(More)
Arginine (Arg) has been used for recognizing negatively charged biological molecules, cell penetration, and oligosaccharide mass signal enhancement. The versatility of Arg has inspired the need to develop Arg analogs and to research the structural effects of incorporating Arg analogs. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of Arg side chain length on helix(More)
Highly fluorinated amino acids have been used to stabilize helical proteins for potential application in various protein-based biotechnologies. To gain further insight into the effect of these highly fluorinated amino acids on helix formation exclusively, we measured the helix propensity of three highly fluorinated amino acids:(More)
Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing was recently proposed to deliver light dynamically to a tight region inside a scattering medium. In this letter, we report the first development of a reflection-mode TRUE optical focusing system. A high numerical aperture light guide is used to transmit the diffusely reflected light from a turbid(More)
Scattering dominates light propagation in biological tissue, and therefore restricts both resolution and penetration depth in optical imaging within thick tissue. As photons travel into the diffusive regime-typically 1 mm beneath human skin, their trajectories transition from ballistic to diffusive due to increased number of scattering events, which makes(More)