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The health effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have not been well investigated, despite AgNPs now being widely used in consumer products. We investigated the metabolic behavior and toxicity of AgNPs in comparison to silver nitrate (AgNO3) both in vivo and in vitro. AgNPs (20 nm diameter) suspended in 1% albumin solution or AgNO3 solution was injected(More)
The beta subunits of the two pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH and of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were cloned from Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) pituitary glands. These three glycoprotein hormone beta subunits possess the main characteristics common to their counterparts in other vertebrates. Taking advantage of the phylogenetic(More)
Solid-state characterization plays a vital role in lead optimization and candidate selection with the appropriate physicochemical properties for proper oral dosage formulation. Aqueous solubility is an important parameter in the successful development of oral dosage formulation since poor aqueous solubility limits absorption. In this study, we summarized an(More)
Although several mathematical models have been reported for the estimation of human plasma concentration profiles of drug substances after dermal application, the successful cases that can predict human pharmacokinetic profiles are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the prediction of human plasma concentrations after dermal(More)
Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution(More)
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commercially used mainly as antibacterial reagents in wound dressing and deodorant powders. However, the mechanisms underlying Ag toxicity in mammals are not fully understood. In the present study, we assessed cellular distribution and toxicity of AgNPs and AgNO3 in mouse macrophage cell line (J774.1) and those of AgNO3 in(More)
Silver (Ag) possesses a well-known antibacterial activity and has been used for medical treatment and cosmetics such as wound dressing and deodorant powders. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed that the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for both metallic and most soluble Ag compounds(More)
Although Göttingen minipigs have been widely used for the evaluation of skin absorption, the correlation of minipig skin permeability with human skin absorption remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the prediction of human plasma concentrations after dermal application of drug products using skin permeability data obtained from minipigs.(More)
Micronized cocrystal powders and amorphous spray-dried formulations were prepared and evaluated in vivo and in vitro as pulmonary absorption enhancement formulations of poorly soluble itraconazole (ITZ). ITZ cocrystals with succinic acid (SA) or l-tartaric acid (TA) with a particle size diameter of <2μm were successfully micronized using the jet-milling(More)
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