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We explore the foreign exchange and stock market networks for 48 countries from 1999 to 2012 and propose a model, based on complex Hilbert principal component analysis, for extracting significant lead-lag relationships between these markets. The global set of countries, including large and small countries in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and the Middle East,(More)
A size-tunable micro-channel is fabricated in a gap between two probe electrodes by freezing aqueous KCl. The channel has been characterized by resistance measurements and channel blocking by resistive particles. The channel size can be varied by the temperature even after the preparation of the channel. The channel is potentially useful not only for(More)
Voltammetry of the reversible redox couple, Fe(CN)6(4-)/Fe(CN)6(3-), using a microdisc electrode, is employed to probe the dynamic process of the growth of the liquid phase (LP) in frozen aqueous NaCl solutions. Critical factors are the temperature history of a frozen sample and a freeze-concentration ratio. When the temperature is directly set to the(More)
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