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OBJECTIVE Hyperuricemia is common in patients with metabolic syndrome. We investigated the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in atherosclerosis development, and the effects of the XOR inhibitor allopurinol on this process. METHODS AND RESULTS Oral administration of allopurinol to ApoE knockout mice markedly ameliorated lipid accumulation and(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in insulin resistance, which is characterized by the impairment of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway. However, the time course of the decrease in AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the liver during the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by feeding a high fat diet (HFD) remains(More)
Inflammation involving adipose tissue is regarded as one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-related insulin resistance. Recent studies have suggested a series of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to improve insulin resistance or protect against the development of diabetes mellitus. We previously demonstrated that valsartan suppresses(More)
Tributyltin, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide, and component of antifouling paints. In this study, the neurotoxicity of tributyltin was investigated in cultured rat cortical neurons. Tributyltin caused marked time- and dose-dependent increases in the number of trypan blue-stained cells. Measurement(More)
Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide, and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the concentration dependence of the mechanisms of tributyltin cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Exposure of PC12 cells to both 500 nM and 2 microM tributyltin increased the(More)
Tributyltin, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated whether calpain is involved in tributyltin toxicity in undifferentiated PC12 cells. Tributyltin (2 microM) induced an increase of lactate dehydrogenase release, a marker of(More)
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) expression in visceral adipose tissue is reportedly increased in obese patients, suggesting an association of DPP-IV with inflammation. In this study, first, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or palmitate-induced elevations of inflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages were shown to be significantly suppressed by(More)
Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used commercially as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT on neuronal glutamate receptors. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to 1-50 nM TBT for 9 days(More)
R esistin was initially identified as an adipocyte-secreted factor that causes insulin resistance. 1 Subsequent studies have suggested its association with type 2 diabetes mel-litus, 2 congestive heart failure, 3 and coronary artery disease. After the discovery of resistin, 3 resistin-related proteins, termed resistin-like molecule (RELM) α, β (FIZZ2,(More)
BACKGROUND DPP-4 inhibitors reportedly exert effects on both alpha and beta cells, and promote the proliferation and survival of beta cells. We investigated the effects of anagliptin on structurally-impaired islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice, fed either a normal or a high-fat diet. Pdx-1 expression in the pancreas and serum(More)