Learn More
We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
The histone H3 variant CenH3, called CENP-A in humans, is central in centromeric chromatin to ensure proper chromosome segregation. In the absence of an underlying DNA sequence, it is still unclear how CENP-A deposition at centromeres is determined. Here, we purified non-nucleosomal CENP-A complexes to identify direct CENP-A partners involved in such a(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099 was determined. The genome of M. loti consisted of a single chromosome (7,036,071 bp) and two plasmids, designated as pMLa (351,911 bp) and pMLb (208, 315 bp). The chromosome comprises 6752 potential protein-coding genes, two sets of rRNA genes and(More)
The distribution of different types of terminals on different portions of single thalamocortical neurons (TCNs) was quantitatively investigated in the cat ventral lateral nucleus (VL) by the application of computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction from serial ultrathin sections. Single neurons in the VL were intracellularly penetrated with a glass(More)
The retinal bipolar cell receiving glutamate transmission from photoreceptors mediates a key process in segregating visual signals into ON center and OFF center pathways. This transmission involves a G protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Immunocytochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies indicate that restricted localization of a(More)
The initial microglial responses that occur after brain injury and in various neurological diseases are characterized by microglial accumulation in the affected sites of brain that results from the migration and proliferation of these cells. The early-phase signal responsible for this accumulation is likely to be transduced by rapidly diffusible factors. In(More)
CD9 is an integral membrane protein associated with integrins and other membrane proteins. Mice lacking CD9 were produced by homologous recombination. Both male and female CD9-/- mice were born healthy and grew normally. However, the litter size from CD9-/- females was less than 2% of that of the wild type. In vitro fertilization experiments indicated that(More)
To examine the extent and variation of allelic loss in a common adult tumor, polymorphic DNA markers were studied from every nonacrocentric autosomal arm in 56 paired colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa specimens. This analysis was termed an allelotype, in analogy with a karyotype. Three major conclusions were drawn from this analysis:(More)
A large collection of good genetic markers is needed to map the genes that cause human genetic diseases. Although nearly 400 polymorphic DNA markers for human chromosomes have been described, the majority have only two alleles and are thus uninformative for analysis of genetic linkage in many families. A few known marker systems, however, detect loci that(More)