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Cecropin P1 was first identified as a mammalian antimicrobial peptide isolated from the pig intestine. Much research aimed at characterizing this peptide has been reported. Recently, the workers who discovered the peptide corrected their original conclusion, and confirmed that this peptide originates in fact from the pig intestinal parasitic nematode,(More)
Two genes encoding the ASABF (Ascaris suum antibacterial factor)-type antimicrobial peptide, abf-1 and abf-2, were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Recombinant ABF-2 exhibited potent microbicidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. The tissue-specific distribution estimated by immunofluorescence staining and(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of staphylococci to grow in a wide range of salt concentrations is well documented. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of cardiolipin (CL) in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to high salinity. RESULTS Using an improved extraction method, the analysis of phospholipid composition suggested that CL levels increased(More)
The yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied as a typical leaf-variegated mutant whose defect results from the lack of FtsH2 metalloprotease in chloroplasts. The var2 green sectors suffer from photo-oxidative stress and accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of compromised Photosystem II repair. This(More)
Arabidopsis contains four Lon protease-like proteins (AtLon1-AtLon4), predicted to be localized in different cellular organelles, including mitochondria, peroxisomes and plastids. A notable question is whether Lon is present in chloroplasts, since it is absent from cyanobacteria and thus appears to have been lost during the evolution of photosynthetic(More)
Recently, invertebrate models have been widely used for the study of innate immunity. Nematodes are novel potential candidates because of the experimental advantages of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, whether nematodes have active immune responses is still ambiguous. Previously, we reported ASABF (Ascaris suum antibacterial factor)-type antimicrobial(More)
BACKGROUND Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are well recognized to be promising as novel antimicrobial and antitumor agents. To obtain novel skeletons of CAMPs, we propose a simple strategy using acid-amide substitution (i.e. Glu→Gln, Asp→Asn) to confer net positive charge to natural non-antimicrobial sequences that have structures distinct from(More)
BACKGROUND NP4P is a synthetic peptide derived from a natural, non-antimicrobial peptide fragment (pro-region of nematode cecropin P4) by substitution of all acidic amino acid residues with amides (i.e., Glu --> Gln, and Asp --> Asn). RESULTS In the presence of NP4P, some membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides (ASABF-alpha, polymyxin B, and nisin)(More)
Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino(More)
Light energy drives photosynthesis, but it simultaneously inactivates photosynthetic mechanisms. A major target site of photo-damage is photosystem II (PSII). It further targets one reaction center protein, D1, which is maintained efficiently by the PSII repair cycle. Two proteases, FtsH and Deg, are known to contribute to this process, respectively, by(More)