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BACKGROUND Bispectral index (BIS) is a widely used quantitative parameter for evaluating anesthesia and sedation levels. Dexmedetomidine is a novel sedative, providing sedation while patients remain cooperative and can be easily aroused; as a consequence, BIS used with dexmedetomidine may poorly characterize sedation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BIS(More)
BACKGROUND In this study, the authors determined the success and failure rates for interns learning bag-and-mask ventilation and orotracheal intubation. Their goal was to determine the amount of experience needed to perform these procedures correctly. METHODS The authors recorded 695 bag-and-mask ventilations and 679 orotracheal intubations performed by(More)
BACKGROUND Because etomidate impairs adrenal function and blunts the cortisol release associated with surgical stimulus, we hypothesized that patients induced with etomidate suffer greater mortality and morbidity than comparable patients induced with propofol. METHODS We evaluated the electronic records of 31,148 ASA physical status III and IV patients(More)
BACKGROUND Obtaining accurate end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure measurements via nasal cannula poses difficulties in postanesthesia patients who are mouth breathers, including those who are obese and those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); a nasal cannula with an oral guide may improve measurement accuracy in these patients. The authors evaluated the(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothermia may be beneficial in stroke victims; however, it provokes vigorous shivering. Buspirone and dexmedetomidine each linearly reduce the shivering threshold with minimal sedation and no respiratory depression. This study tested the hypotheses that the combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine would (1) synergistically reduce the(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Obesity is a major risk factor for lower back pain. Fluoroscope-guided medial branch block is a common diagnostic tool in these patients. Although approach to the facet joint guided by ultrasound has been demonstrated successfully in lean patients, its success in obese patients is unknown.We therefore evaluated the success rate of(More)
BACKGROUND Many anesthetics reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP). Reduced pressure and consequent reduction in the gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG) thus promotes gastroesophageal reflux and may contribute to aspiration pneumonia and associated morbidity. Therefore, the authors compared LESP and GEPG during dexmedetomidine and propofol(More)
BACKGROUND Adenosine is a soporific neuromodulator; aminophylline, which is clinically used as a bronchodilator, antagonizes the action of adenosine in the central nervous system. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that aminophylline delays loss of consciousness (LOC) and speeds recovery of consciousness (ROC) with propofol anesthesia, and that aminophylline(More)
BACKGROUND Many anesthetics reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and consequently the gastro-esophageal pressure gradient (GEPG); thus they may promote gastro-esophageal reflux and contribute to aspiration pneumonia. Our goals were to evaluate the association between LESP and 2 measures of sedation: bispectral index (BIS) and the responsiveness(More)
PURPOSE Our main objective was to assess incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining approval from the Human Studies Committee, we reviewed the electronic records from our intensive care unit database of 111 stroke patients on mechanical ventilation for more than(More)