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BACKGROUND Many anesthetics reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and consequently the gastro-esophageal pressure gradient (GEPG); thus they may promote gastro-esophageal reflux and contribute to aspiration pneumonia. Our goals were to evaluate the association between LESP and 2 measures of sedation: bispectral index (BIS) and the responsiveness(More)
Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) is a common airway procedure used to connect the larynx and the lungs through the windpipe of patients under emergency situations. The process is carried out by a laryngoscope inserted into the mouth, and helps doctors in viewing the glottis and inserting the tube. In 2012, we developed a humanoid robot for ETI training, called(More)
Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a difficult technique and requires a great deal of practice to master. Research on the difference in movements between experts and novices performing the procedure has shown that experts perform movements more precisely than novices. Experts keep a fixed posture and use the upper arm muscles and wrist joints more(More)
In the roommate problem, it is known that a stable matching may not exist. In this paper, we propose a new deviation-proof concept, called credible stability, and show that the concept resolves the problem. At a credibly stable matching, any coalition which deviates from the matching is punishable; a deviating coalition is punishable if there exists a(More)
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