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During peptide-bond formation on the ribosome, the α-amine of an aminoacyl-tRNA attacks the ester carbonyl carbon of a peptidyl-tRNA to yield a peptide lengthened by one amino acid. Although the ribosome's contribution to catalysis is predominantly entropic, the lack of high-resolution structural data for the complete active site in complex with full-length(More)
Nucleosomes uniquely positioned on high-affinity DNA sequences present a polar barrier to transcription by human and yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In one transcriptional orientation, these nucleosomes provide a strong, factor- and salt-insensitive barrier at the entry into the H3/H4 tetramer that can be recapitulated without H2A/H2B dimers. The same(More)
Eubacteria inactivate their ribosomes as 100S dimers or 70S monomers upon entry into stationary phase. In Escherichia coli, 100S dimer formation is mediated by ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF), or alternatively, the YfiA protein inactivates ribosomes as 70S monomers. Here, we present high-resolution crystal structures(More)
Action across long distances on chromatin is a hallmark of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation. Although chromatin structure per se can support long-range interactions, the mechanisms of efficient communication between widely spaced DNA modules in chromatin remain a mystery. The molecular simulations described herein suggest that transient binary(More)
We report crystal structures of the Thermus thermophilus ribosome at 2.3- to 2.5-Å resolution, which have enabled modeling of rRNA modifications. The structures reveal contacts of modified nucleotides with mRNA and tRNAs or protein pY, and contacts within the ribosome interior stabilizing the functional fold of rRNA. Our work provides a resource to explore(More)
Cisplatin is a widely prescribed anticancer drug, which triggers cell death by covalent binding to a broad range of biological molecules. Among cisplatin targets, cellular RNAs remain the most poorly characterized molecules. Although cisplatin was shown to inactivate essential RNAs, including ribosomal, spliceosomal and telomeric RNAs, cisplatin binding(More)
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