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Hypoxia is a critical factor for cell death or survival in ischemic stroke, but the pathological consequences of combined ischemia-hypoxia are not fully understood. Here we examine this issue using a modified Levine/Vannucci procedure in adult mice that consists of unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia with tightly regulated body(More)
The proliferative ventricular zone (VZ) is the main source of projection neurons for the overlying cerebral neocortex. The number and diversity of neocortical neurons is determined, in part, by factors controlling the proliferation and specification of VZ cells during embryonic development. We used a variety of methods, including in utero electroporation(More)
The development of cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurons in the rat hippocampus was studied using immunocytochemical methods at the light and electron microscopic levels from early (P0-P8) to later postnatal (P12-P20) periods. The laminar distribution of CCK-IR cell bodies changed considerably during the studied period, which is suggested to(More)
Primary cilia are present on mammalian neurons and glia, but their function is largely unknown. We generated conditional homozygous mutant mice for a gene we termed Stumpy. Mutants lack cilia and have conspicuous abnormalities in postnatally developing brain regions, including a hypoplasic hippocampus characterized by a primary deficiency in neural stem(More)
The roles of endocannabinoid signaling during central nervous system development are unknown. We report that CB(1) cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)Rs) are enriched in the axonal growth cones of gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing (GABAergic) interneurons in the rodent cortex during late gestation. Endocannabinoids trigger CB(1)R internalization and elimination(More)
Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons promote satiety. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is critical for the central regulation of food intake. Here we test whether CB1R-controlled feeding in sated mice is paralleled by decreased activity of POMC neurons. We show that chemical promotion of CB1R activity increases feeding, and notably, CB1R activation(More)
Anti-cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 ) polyclonal antibodies are widely used to detect the presence of CB1 in a variety of brain cells and their organelles, including neuronal mitochondria. Surprisingly, we found that anti-CB1 sera, in parallel with CB1 , also recognize the mitochondrial protein stomatin-like protein 2. In addition, we show that the(More)
Most neurons in the developing mammalian brain migrate to their final destinations by translocation of the cell nucleus within their leading process and immature bipolar body that is devoid of synaptic connections. Here, we used a combination of immunohistochemistry at light- and electron-microscopic (EM) levels and time-lapse imaging in slice cultures to(More)
In adult cortical tissue, recruitment of GABAergic inhibition prevents the progression of synchronous population discharges to epileptic activity. However, at early developmental stages, GABA is excitatory and thus unable to fulfill this role. Here, we report that retrograde signaling involving endocannabinoids is responsible for the homeostatic control of(More)
Type 1 cannabinoid receptors, selectively located on axon terminals of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, are known to be involved in endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic signalling. The question arises whether type 1 cannabinoid receptors appear on these axons during early post-natal life, when GABAergic transmission is still depolarizing,(More)