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To determine the relative potency of synthetic glucocorticoids, glucocorticoid receptor expressing cells were transfected with a hormone-inducible reporter gene, and were cultured in the presence of various glucocorticoid ligands. Hormonal inducbility was determined by means of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Dexamethasone and prednisolone, as(More)
In addition to the well-known light-driven outward proton pumps, novel ion-pumping rhodopsins functioning as outward Na(+) and inward Cl(-) pumps have been recently found in eubacteria. They convert light energy into transmembrane electrochemical potential difference, similar to the prototypical archaeal H(+) pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Cl(-) pump(More)
Light-driven outward H(+) pumps are widely distributed in nature, converting sunlight energy into proton motive force. Here we report the characterization of an oppositely directed H(+) pump with a similar architecture to outward pumps. A deep-ocean marine bacterium, Parvularcula oceani, contains three rhodopsins, one of which functions as a light-driven(More)
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