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Photosensitizers are chromophores that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light irradiation. They are used for inactivation of specific proteins by chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) and for light-induced cell killing in photodynamic therapy. Here we report a genetically encoded photosensitizer, which we call KillerRed, developed from(More)
The family of proteins homologous to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria exhibits striking diversity of features, including several different types of autocatalytically synthesized chromophores. Here we report 11 new members of the family, among which there are 3 red-emitters possessing unusual features, and discuss the similarity(More)
Recently, we cloned several fluorescent proteins of different colors homologous to Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein, which have great biotechnological potential as in vivo markers of gene expression. However, later investigations revealed severe drawbacks in the use of novel fluorescent proteins (FPs), in particular, the formation of tetramers(More)
Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), including the recently described GFP-like domains of certain extracellular matrix proteins in Bilaterian organisms, are remarkably similar at the protein structure level, yet they often perform totally unrelated functions, thereby warranting recognition as a superfamily. Here we describe diverse GFP-like(More)
We have employed a new approach to generate novel fluorescent proteins (FPs) from red absorbing chromoproteins. An identical single amino acid substitution converted novel chromoproteins from the species Anthozoa (Heteractis crispa, Condylactis gigantea, and Goniopora tenuidens) into far-red FPs (emission lambda(max)=615-640 nm). Moreover, coupled(More)
We have cloned an unusual colourless green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like protein from Aequorea coerulescens (acGFPL). The A. coerulescens specimens displayed blue (not green) luminescence, and no fluorescence was detected in these medusae. Escherichia coli expressing wild-type acGFPL showed neither fluorescence nor visible coloration. Random mutagenesis(More)
Practical applications of green fluorescent protein ('GFP')-like fluorescent proteins (FPs) from species of the class Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals and sea pens) are strongly restricted owing to their oligomeric nature. Here we suggest a strategy to overcome this problem by the use of two covalently linked identical red FPs as non-oligomerizing fusion(More)
Proteins of the GFP (green fluorescent protein) family demonstrate a great spectral and phylogenetic diversity. However, there is still an intense demand for red-shifted GFP-like proteins in both basic and applied science. To obtain GFP-like chromoproteins with red-shifted absorption, we performed a broad search in blue-coloured Anthozoa species. We(More)
BACKGROUND Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) cloned from jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from corals Anthozoa have a great practical significance as in vivo markers of gene expression. Also, they are an interesting puzzle of protein science due to an unusual mechanism of chromophore formation and diversity of fluorescent colors. Fluorescent(More)
We have isolated a novel isoform of phospholipase A(2). This enzyme was designated srPLA(2) because it was discovered while analyzing the proteins interacting with different forms of the v-Src oncoproteins isolated from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed hamster cells. It contains all the functional regions of the PLA(2) group IIA proteins but differs at its(More)