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Enveloped viruses that rely on a low pH-dependent step for entry initiate infection by fusing with acidic endosomes, whereas the entry sites for pH-independent viruses, such as HIV-1, have not been defined. These viruses have long been assumed to fuse directly with the plasma membrane. Here we used population-based measurements of the viral content delivery(More)
Numerous motile cell functions depend on signaling from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) translocate to the nucleus in response to actin polymerization and cooperate with serum response factor (Srf) to regulate the expression of genes encoding actin and other components of the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that(More)
Reduced oxygenation, or hypoxia, inhibits differentiation and facilitates stem cell maintenance. Hypoxia commonly occurs in solid tumors and promotes malignant progression. Hypoxic tumors are aggressive and exhibit stem cell-like characteristics. It remains unclear, however, whether and how hypoxia regulates cancer cell differentiation and maintains cancer(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods(More)
To evaluate the difference in expressing pharmacological effects of ginseng by intestinal microflora between Koreans, metabolic activities of ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 by 100 fecal specimens were measured. The β-glucosidase activity for p-nitrophenyl- β-D-glucopyranoside was 0 to 0.42 μmol/min/mg and its average activity (mean±SD) was 0.10±0.07(More)
BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough and a potential risk factor for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of GERD in patients with COPD and association between GERD and COPD exacerbation. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND We recently provided evidence that HIV-1 enters HeLa-derived TZM-bl and lymphoid CEMss cells by fusing with endosomes, whereas its fusion with the plasma membrane does not proceed beyond the lipid mixing step. The mechanism of restriction of HIV-1 fusion at the cell surface and/or the factors that aid the virus entry from endosomes remain(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 infected macrophages and microglia are long-lived viral reservoirs persistently producing viral progenies. HIV-1 infection extends the life span of macrophages by promoting the stress-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Importantly, various cancers also display the PI3K/Akt activation for long-term cell survival and(More)
The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human(More)
Molecular oxygen has been known to play a critical role in a wide range of biological processes including glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration, angiogenesis, pulmonary functions, and cardiovascular activities. An emerging theme has developed in recent years that oxygen has significant impact on embryonic development, maintenance of stem cells, and cellular(More)