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Enveloped viruses that rely on a low pH-dependent step for entry initiate infection by fusing with acidic endosomes, whereas the entry sites for pH-independent viruses, such as HIV-1, have not been defined. These viruses have long been assumed to fuse directly with the plasma membrane. Here we used population-based measurements of the viral content delivery(More)
Chondrocyte hypertrophy is essential for endochondral bone development. Unexpectedly, we discovered that MEF2C, a transcription factor that regulates muscle and cardiovascular development, controls bone development by activating the gene program for chondrocyte hypertrophy. Genetic deletion of Mef2c or expression of a dominant-negative MEF2C mutant in(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier that regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the brain to maintain the neural microenvironment. We have previously developed the in vitro BBB model with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). However, in vivo HBMEC are shown to interact with astrocytes and also(More)
The muscle-specific microRNAs, miR-1 and miR-133, play important roles in muscle growth and differentiation. Here, we show that the MEF2 transcription factor, an essential regulator of muscle development, directly activates transcription of a bicistronic primary transcript encoding miR-1-2 and 133a-1 via an intragenic muscle-specific enhancer located(More)
Hesperidin is a biologically active flavanone glycoside occurring abundantly in citrus fruits. In the present study, effects of intestinal microflora on pharmacokinetics of hesperidin were investigated using a pseudo-germ-free rat model treated with antibiotics. After administration of hesperidin to rats, hesperetin, hesperetin glucuronides, and metabolites(More)
The adult mammalian heart has limited potential for regeneration. Thus, after injury, cardiomyocytes are permanently lost, and contractility is diminished. In contrast, the neonatal heart can regenerate owing to sustained cardiomyocyte proliferation. Identification of critical regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation and quiescence represents an important(More)
Skeletal muscle development is controlled by the myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2) and myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) families of transcription factors, which associate and synergistically activate muscle gene expression. Muscle differentiation is further reinforced by positive-feedback loops in which myogenic bHLH proteins activate their own(More)
Numerous motile cell functions depend on signaling from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) translocate to the nucleus in response to actin polymerization and cooperate with serum response factor (Srf) to regulate the expression of genes encoding actin and other components of the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that(More)
The adult heart responds to excessive neurohumoral signaling and workload by a pathological growth response characterized by hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and activation of a fetal program of cardiac gene expression. These responses culminate in diminished pump function, ventricular dilatation, wall thinning, and fibrosis, and can result in sudden death.(More)
Hypoxia or oxygen deficiency is a salient feature of solid tumors. Hypoxic tumors are often resistant to conventional cancer therapies, and tumor hypoxia correlates with advanced stages of malignancy. Hypoxic tumors appear to be poorly differentiated. Increasing evidence suggests that hypoxia has the potential to inhibit tumor cell differentiation and thus(More)