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XML queries typically specify patterns of selection predicates on multiple elements that have some specified tree structured relationships. The primitive tree structured relationships are parent-child and ancestor-descendant, and finding all occurrences of these relationships in an XML database is a core operation for XML query processing. In this paper, we(More)
This paper describes the overall design and architecture of the Timber XML database system currently being implemented at the University of Michigan. The system is based upon a bulk algebra for manipulating trees, and na-tively stores XML. New access methods have been developed to evaluate queries in the XML context, and new cost estimation and query(More)
XML has become ubiquitous, and XML data has to be managed in databases. The current industry standard is to map XML data into relational tables and store this information in a relational database. Such mappings create both expressive power problems and performance problems.In the T<sc>IMBER</sc> [7] project we are exploring the issues involved in storing(More)
XML is widely praised for its flexibility in allowing repeated and missing sub-elements. However, this flexibility makes it challenging to develop a bulk algebra, which typically manipulates sets of objects with identical structure. A set of XML elements, say of type book, may have members that vary greatly in structure, e.g. in the number of author(More)
Structural join operations are central to evaluating queries against XML data, and are typically responsible for consuming a lion's share of the query processing time. Thus, structural join order selection is at the heart of query optimization in an XML database, just as (value-based) join order selection is central to relational query optimization. In this(More)
Estimating the sizes of query results, and intermediate results, is crucial to many aspects of query processing. In particular, it is necessary for effective query optimization. Even at the user level, predictions of the total result size can be valuable in " next-step " decisions, such as query refinement. This paper proposes a technique to obtain query(More)
Motivated by both established and new applications, we study navigational query languages for graphs (binary relations). The simplest language has only the two operators union and composition, together with the identity relation. We make more powerful languages by adding any of the following operators: intersection; set difference; projection; coprojection;(More)
Being able to express and enforce role-based access control on XML data is a critical component of XML data management. However, given the semi-structured nature of XML, this is non-trivial, as access control can be applied on the values of nodes as well as on the structural relationship between nodes. In this context, we adopt and extend a graph editing(More)
XML permits repeated and missing sub-elements, and missing attributes. We discuss the consequent implications on grouping, both with respect to specification and with respect to implementation. The techniques described here have been implemented in the TIMBER native XML database system being developed at the University of Michigan.