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Synaptic loss is the cardinal feature linking neuropathology to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of synaptic damage remains incompletely understood. Here, using FRET-based glutamate sensor imaging, we show that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) engages α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to induce release of astrocytic glutamate,(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood, it is well-documented that oxidative stress and Ca(2+)-mediated cellular damage play important roles in the progression of PD. 2-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]-methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (TBN), a novel nitrone(More)
Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra- hydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin to simulate PD, is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in vivo. MPP+ induces excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),(More)
Free radical-mediated neuronal cell damage is an important pathological process in ischemic stroke. We have previously reported a novel dual-functional agent, 2-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]-methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (TBN), a derivative of tetramethylpyrazine armed with anitrone moiety. In this report, we further evaluate TBN'stherapeutic(More)
Indirubin-3-oxime (I3O), a synthetic derivative of indirubin, was originally designed as potent inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) for leukemia therapy. In the current study, we have shown, for the first time, that I3O prevented 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-induced neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive(More)
Stroke and vascular dementia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Neuroprotective therapies have been proposed but none have proven clinically tolerated and effective. While overstimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to contribute to cerebrovascular insults, the importance of NMDARs in physiological(More)
The andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate AL-1 is a newly synthesized molecule by covalently linking andrographolide (Andro) with α-lipoic acid (LA). In the present work, the neuroprotective effect of AL-1 was investigated in vitro and in a mouse model of the Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that AL-1 significantly prevented 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
BACKGROUND While all anti-diabetic agents can decrease blood glucose level directly or indirectly, few are able to protect and preserve both pancreatic beta cell mass and their insulin-secreting functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to find an agent or combination of agents that can lower blood glucose and preserve pancreatic beta cells at the same time.(More)
BACKGROUND Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE) and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. METHODS Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol(More)
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members including PDI and ERp57 emerge as novel targets for anti-thrombotic treatments, but chemical agents with selectivity remain to be explored. We previously reported a novel derivative of danshensu (DSS), known as ADTM, displayed strong cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in(More)