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Bilayer Bi/In thin films form thermal resists with many new microfabrication and micromachining applications due to their changed physical, chemical and optical characteristics after laser exposures. Wavelength invariance has been shown from the results of both experiment and Airy Summation optical modeling. The modeling projects bimetallic resist(More)
A new single step direct-write photomask process has been proposed by using Bi/In bimetallic thermal resist which turns almost transparent with high energy laser exposure. The Bi over In metallic films, each layer ~40 nm thick, were DC-sputtered onto quartz mask plate substrates in a single pump-down chamber. Before laser exposure the Bi/In had 2.91 Optical(More)
Bilayer Bi/In thin film thermal resists are Bi and In films which form an etch resistant material at ~7 mJ/cm 2 laser exposures with near wavelength invariance from visible to EUV. New simulations predicted that Bi/In film of 15/15nm absorbs substantially at 1 nm, which projects single pulse exposure sensitivity of ~16 mJ/cm 2 , hence suggesting good(More)
Based on quantum theory of the Coulombic interactions between a molecule and its surrounding molecules, a theoretical derivation is presented to obtain an atomic charge model. The charge model shows that the appropriate atomic charge, used for example in molecular mechanical force fields, is simply the average value of the electrostatic potential (ESP)(More)
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