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Diabetes leads to vascular leakage, glial dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis within the retina. The goal of the studies reported here was to determine the role that retinal microglial cells play in diabetic retinopathy and assess whether minocycline can decrease microglial activation and alleviate retinal complications. Immunohistochemical analyses showed(More)
Glial cells are thought to supply energy for neurotransmission by increasing nonoxidative glycolysis; however, oxidative metabolism in glia may also contribute to increased brain activity. To study glial contribution to cerebral energy metabolism in the unanesthetized state, we measured neuronal and glial metabolic fluxes in the awake rat brain by using a(More)
Insulin resistance, recently recognized as a strong predictor of disease in adults, has become the leading element of the metabolic syndrome and renewed as a focus of research. The condition exists when insulin levels are higher than expected relative to the level of glucose. Thus, insulin resistance is by definition tethered to hyperinsulinemia. The rising(More)
This study was conceived in an effort to understand cause and effect relationships between hyperglycemia and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous studies show that hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress in the diabetic retinas, but the mechanisms that generate oxidative stress have not been resolved. Increased electron pressure on the mitochondrial electron(More)
Cerebral rates of anaplerosis are known to be significant, yet the rates measured in vivo have been debated. In order to track glutamate metabolism in brain glutamatergic neurons and brain glia, for the first time unrestrained awake rats were continuously infused with a combination of H14CO3- and [1 - 13C]glucose in over 50 infusions ranging from 5 to 60(More)
The mitochondrial transporter, the aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), is a necessary component of the malate/aspartate cycle, which promotes the transfer into mitochondria of reducing equivalents generated in the cytosol during glycolysis. Without transfer of cytosolic reducing equivalents into mitochondria, neither glucose nor lactate can be completely(More)
Some models of brain energy metabolism used to interpret in vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data assume that intramitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate is in rapid isotopic equilibrium with total brain glutamate, most of which is cytosolic. If so, the kinetics of changes in (13)C-glutamate can be used to predict citric acid cycle flux. For(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are elevated in obesity and this has been linked to obesity comorbidities. However it is unclear how obesity affects alloisoleucine, a BCAA and pathognomonic marker of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) disorders. It has been previously established that obese Zucker rats exhibit(More)
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), like olanzapine, exhibit acute metabolic side effects leading to metabolic inflexibility, hyperglycemia, adiposity and diabetes. Understanding how SGAs affect the skeletal muscle transcriptome could elucidate approaches for mitigating these side effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with(More)
Global deletion of BCATm increases expression of skeletal muscle genes associated with 2 protein turnover 3 4 5 Christopher J. Lynch *, Scot R. Kimball , Yuping Xu , Anna C. Salzberg 2 and 6 Yuka Imamura Kawasawa 2 3 4 7 8 9 1 Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, College of Medicine, Penn State University, 10 Hershey, PA 17033, USA 11 2 The(More)