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MCScan is an algorithm able to scan multiple genomes or subgenomes in order to identify putative homologous chromosomal regions, and align these regions using genes as anchors. The MCScanX toolkit implements an adjusted MCScan algorithm for detection of synteny and collinearity that extends the original software by incorporating 14 utility programs for(More)
Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of(More)
BACKGROUND Both single gene and whole genome duplications (WGD) have recurred in angiosperm evolution. However, the evolutionary effects of different modes of gene duplication, especially regarding their contributions to genetic novelty or redundancy, have been inadequately explored. RESULTS In Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice), species that(More)
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family whose biological function in the CNS has not been defined. In contrast to ERK1 and ERK2, which are activated by neurotrophins (NTs), cAMP, and neuronal activity in cortical neurons, ERK5 is activated only by NTs. Here, we report that ERK5 expression is(More)
Multipotent cortical progenitor cells differentiate into neurons and glial cells during development; however, mechanisms governing the specification of progenitors to a neuronal fate are not well understood. Although both extrinsic and intrinsic factors regulate this process, little is known about kinase signaling mechanisms that direct neuronal fate. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND Epistatic interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now believed to affect individual susceptibility to common diseases. The detection of such interactions, however, is a challenging task in large scale association studies. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been shown to be useful in detecting epistatic(More)
Rotenone is a naturally derived pesticide that has recently been shown to evoke the behavioral and pathological symptoms of Parkinson's disease in animal models. Though rotenone is known to be an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I electron transport chain, little is known about downstream pathways leading to its toxicity. We used human dopaminergic(More)
The murine caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome responds to various bacterial infections. Caspase-11 activation-induced pyroptosis, in response to cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is critical for endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanism underlying cytosolic LPS sensing and the responsible pattern recognition receptor are unknown. Here we show that human(More)
The commitment of multi-potent cortical progenitors to a neuronal fate depends on the transient induction of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors including Neurogenin 1 (Neurog1). Previous studies have focused on mechanisms that control the expression of these proteins while little is known about whether their pro-neural(More)
Elucidation of mechanisms regulating cell cycle progression is of fundamental importance for cell and cancer biology. Although several genes and signaling pathways are implicated in G1-S regulation, less is known regarding the mechanisms controlling cell cycle progression through G2 and M phases. We report that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5(More)