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The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is the largest transporter gene family responsible for transporting specific molecules across lipid membranes in all living organisms. In insects, ABC transporters not only have important functions in molecule transport, but also play roles in insecticide resistance, metabolism and development. From the(More)
This study combined complete 18S with partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences ( approximately 2,000 nt in total) to investigate the relations of basal hexapods. Ten species of Protura, 12 of Diplura, and 10 of Collembola (representing all subgroups of these three clades) were sequenced, along with 5 true insects and 8 other arthropods, which served as(More)
Whenever different data sets arrive at conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses, only testable causal explanations of sources of errors in at least one of the data sets allow us to critically choose among the conflicting hypotheses of relationships. The large (28S) and small (18S) subunit rRNAs are among the most popular markers for studies of deep phylogenies.(More)
The monophyly of Diplura and its phylogenetic relationship with other hexapods are important for understanding the phylogeny of Hexapoda. The complete 18SrRNAgene and partial 28SrRNA gene (D3-D5 region) from 2 dipluran species (Campodeidae and Japygidae), 2 proturan species, 3 collembolan species, and 1 locust species were sequenced. Combining related(More)
This study combined nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences (>4100 nt long) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods (Protura, Collembola, and Diplura). It sequenced more 28S genes, to expand on a previous study from this lab that used 18S plus only a tiny part of the 28S gene. Sixteen species of basal hexapods, five insects,(More)
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway(More)
Hexamerin, as a member of the highly conserved arthropod hemocyanin superfamily, has been shown to be a good marker for the phylogenetic study of insects. However, few studies have been conducted on hexamerins in basal hexapods. The first Diplura hexamerin CspHex1 was reported only recently (Pick and Burmester, 2009). Remarkably, CspHex1 was suggested to(More)
This study combined complete 18S with partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (~2000 nt total) to investigate the relations of basal hexapods. Ten species of Protura, 12 of Diplura, and 10 of Collembola (representing all subgroups of these three clades) were sequenced, along with five true insects and eight other arthropods, which served as outgroups. Trees were(More)
The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The(More)
The phylogenetic position of the Protura, traditionally considered the most basal hexapod group, is disputed because it has many unique morphological characters compared with other hexapods. Although mitochondrial genome information has been used extensively in phylogenetic studies, such information is not available for the Protura. This has impeded(More)