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BACKGROUND The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is the largest transporter gene family responsible for transporting specific molecules across lipid membranes in all living organisms. In insects, ABC transporters not only have important functions in molecule transport, but also play roles in insecticide resistance, metabolism and(More)
BACKGROUND Whenever different data sets arrive at conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses, only testable causal explanations of sources of errors in at least one of the data sets allow us to critically choose among the conflicting hypotheses of relationships. The large (28S) and small (18S) subunit rRNAs are among the most popular markers for studies of deep(More)
This study combined complete 18S with partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences ( approximately 2,000 nt in total) to investigate the relations of basal hexapods. Ten species of Protura, 12 of Diplura, and 10 of Collembola (representing all subgroups of these three clades) were sequenced, along with 5 true insects and 8 other arthropods, which served as(More)
The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The(More)
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway(More)
BACKGROUND The phylogenetic position of the Protura, traditionally considered the most basal hexapod group, is disputed because it has many unique morphological characters compared with other hexapods. Although mitochondrial genome information has been used extensively in phylogenetic studies, such information is not available for the Protura. This has(More)
This study combined nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences (>4100 nt long) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods (Protura, Collembola, and Diplura). It sequenced more 28S genes, to expand on a previous study from this lab that used 18S plus only a tiny part of the 28S gene. Sixteen species of basal hexapods, five insects,(More)
The monophyly of Diplura and its phylogenetic relationship with other hexapods are important for understanding the phylogeny of Hexapoda. The complete 18SrRNAgene and partial 28SrRNA gene (D3-D5 region) from 2 dipluran species (Campodeidae and Japygidae), 2 proturan species, 3 collembolan species, and 1 locust species were sequenced. Combining related(More)
The classification of taxa within Collembola (Springtails, Hexapoda) has been controversial. In this study, we combined complete 18S rRNA gene with partial 28S rRNA gene (D7-D10) sequences to investigate the phylogeny of Collembola. About 2500 aligned sites of thirty species representing 29 genera from 14 families of Collembola were analyzed, including one(More)
Two-pronged bristletails (Diplura) are traditionally classified into three major superfamilies: Campodeoidea, Projapygoidea, and Japygoidea. The interrelationships of these three superfamilies and the monophyly of Diplura have been much debated. Few previous studies included Projapygoidea in their phylogenetic considerations, and its position within Diplura(More)