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Although Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are well documented for their ability to suppress various immune cells, T-cell subsets capable of counteracting Tregs have not been demonstrated. Here, we assessed phosphoantigen-activated Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells for the ability to interplay with Tregs in the context of mycobacterial infection. A short-term IL-2(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria and AIDS represent 2 leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide, and their high geographic overlap means coinfection is prevalent. It remains unknown whether distinct immune responses during coinfection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect clinical outcomes. METHODS We tested this hypothesis by(More)
Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical Stroop(More)
Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left(More)
Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined(More)
Training can induce significant changes in brain functioning and behavioral performance. One consequence of training is changing the pattern of brain activation. Abacus training is of interest because abacus experts gain the ability to handle digits with unusual speed and accuracy. However, the neural correlates of numerical memory in abacus-trained(More)
BACKGROUND In vivo kinetics and frequencies of epitope-specific CD4 T cells in lymphoid compartments during M. tuberculosis infection and their resting memory pool after BCG vaccination remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS Macaque DR*W201 tetramer loaded with Ag85B peptide 65 was developed to directly measure epitope-specific CD4 T cells in blood and(More)
The Composite Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at MIT is involved in research on the strategic, organizational and technical aspects of the integration of multiple heterogeneous database systems. In this paper we examine the scope of the work being done at CISL. Certain research efforts in the technical areas of system integration are emphasized; in(More)
Whether cytokines can influence the adaptive immune response by antigen-specific γδ T cells during infections or vaccinations remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that, during BCG/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, Th17-related cytokines markedly upregulated when phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells expanded. In this study, we examined(More)
While recombinant Listeria monocytogenes strains can be explored as vaccine candidates, it is important to develop attenuated but highly immunogenic L. monocytogenes vaccine vectors. Here, prfA* mutations selected on the basis of upregulated expression of L. monocytogenes PrfA-dependent genes and proteins were assessed to determine their abilities to(More)