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It is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the flow mechanisms within drip irrigation emitters to design emitters that have a high anti-clogging performance. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to research the flow characteristics is appropriate because the labyrinth flow path is narrow and its boundary is complex. In this paper, a(More)
A growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are adopting the collateral-free credit programs by anchoring them with their social development programs aimed at improved program effectiveness and sustainability. Drawing upon a sample of 3,564 targeted poor households covered by five small NGOs in rural Bangladesh, this study finds that the NGO(More)
Drip irrigation frequency has important impacts on crop growth, soil moisture, nutrient, salinity and substances’ accumulation in the irrigation system as well as drip irrigation emitter clogging. However, previous studies on reasonable drip irrigation frequency merely focused on crop yield and quality, soil water and salinity transporting, neglecting its(More)
RATIONALE Stable isotope analysis (SIA) provides a powerful tool to investigate diverse ecological questions for marine species, but standardized values are required for comparative assessments. For elasmobranchs, their unique osmoregulatory strategy involves retention of (15)N-depleted urea in body tissues and this may bias δ(15)N values. This may be a(More)
As China’s second-largest large marine ecosystem, the East China Sea Shelf has suffered from overfishing, eutrophication, and physical disturbance over the last several decades. A trophic mass-balance model of this ecosystem was developed in order to characterize the structure and functioning of its food web, to identify its keystone species, and to(More)
Emitter clogging is a bottleneck to restrain the application and popularization of reclaimed water drip irrigation technology, and it is tightly related to the formation of biofilms attached on drip irrigation emitters. However, there is still no quantitative description about the relationship between biofilms components and emitter clogging. Based on the(More)
Drip irrigation is the most effective and reliable method for reclaimed water irrigation. The water usually contains a lot of suspended particles, metal salt ions, organisms and microbial communities, which will enhance the possibility of emitter clogging or more complex clogging mechanism. Emitter clogging has become one of  the key problems to the(More)
An ecosystem model representing the continental shelf of the East China Sea was fitted to a time series of data available from 1969 to 2000 using Ecopath with Ecosim. We used a process-oriented model to explore the extent to which changes in marine resources and the ecosystem were driven by trophic interactions and fishing activities. Fishing effort was(More)
Drip irrigation is the most effective and reliable method for reclaimed water irrigation. Emitter clogging is the bottleneck to restrain the application and popularization of reclaimed water drip irrigation technology, and some researchers have reported that this was tightly related to the formation of biofilms in the irrigation system. We selected(More)
BACKGROUND Disaster Medicine training is not included in medical education curriculum in China, even though the country has suffered various disasters annually. We intended to assess the need for continual education regarding disaster management for health professionals in China. METHODS A survey was conducted among 324 health professionals who(More)