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Neither the mechanisms that govern lip morphogenesis nor the cause of cleft lip are well understood. We report that genetic inactivation of Lrp6, a co-receptor of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, leads to cleft lip with cleft palate. The activity of a Wnt signaling reporter is blocked in the orofacial primordia by Lrp6 deletion in mice. The(More)
Collisions between aircraft and birds have become an increasing concern for human health and safety. More than four hundred people and over four hundred aircraft have been lost globally in recent years, according to a FAA report. To minimize the number of birdstikes, microphone arrays have been used to monitor birds near the airport or some critical(More)
To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (November 2000 to February 2001) and summer (June 2001 to August 2001) periods. The(More)
Coloboma, an ocular birth defect seen in humans and other species, is caused by incomplete closure of the optic fissure. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of Lrp6, a bottleneck coreceptor in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, results in ocular coloboma and neuroretinal patterning defects in mice. The expression of ventral neuroretinal patterning(More)
The role of a key Wnt coreceptor Lrp6 during heart development remains unclear. Here we show that ablation of Lrp6 in mice causes conotruncal anomalies including double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), outflow tract (OFT) cushion hypoplasia, and ventricular septal defect (VSD). Cardiac neural crest cells are specifically lost in the dorsal neural tube and(More)
Wnt reporter TOPgal mice carry a beta-galactosidase (betagal) gene under the control of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling responsive elements. We found that the intensely immunolabeled betagal+ cells were co-immunolabeled with Nestin and formed a tangentially oriented single-cell layer in the "connecting or docking zone" where the olfactory sensory axons(More)
The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immune responses against infection and danger signals. Stimulation of TLR9 has been linked to invasion in various cancer cells in vitro. The present study evaluated the expression of TLR9 in human esophageal cancer (EC) cells and normal and malignant esophageal squamous(More)
This correspondence proposes a method for array pattern synthesis of a concentric ring array that yields invariant array pattern over a certain frequency band for beamforming in three dimensions. The proposed method uses the Fourier-Bessel series to determine the weights from different rings to form the overall array pattern. Simulation examples are given(More)
The presence of excess glutamate in the brain interstitial fluid characterizes several acute pathological conditions of the brain, including traumatic brain injury and stroke. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to eliminate excess glutamate in the brain by decreasing blood glutamate levels and, accordingly, accelerating the brain-to-blood(More)