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A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a collection of wireless sensor nodes forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, due to the limited range of each node's wireless transmissions, it may be necessary for one sensor node to ask for the aid of other sensor nodes in(More)
– As mobile wireless ad hoc networks have different characteristics from wired networks and even from standard wireless networks, there are new challenges related to security issues that need to be addressed. Many intrusion detection systems have been proposed and most of them are tightly related to routing protocols, such as Watchdog/Pathrater and(More)
BACKGROUND The biomechanical characteristics of midshaft clavicular fractures treated with titanium elastic nail (TEN) is unclear. This study aimed to present a biomechanical finite element analysis of biomechanical characteristics involved in TEN fixation and reconstruction plate fixation for midshaft clavicular fractures. METHODS Finite element models(More)
How cells sense their mechanical environment and transduce forces into biochemical signals is a crucial yet unresolved question in mechanobiology. Platelets use receptor glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), specifically its α subunit (GPIbα), to signal as they tether and translocate on von Willebrand factor (VWF) of injured arterial surfaces against blood flow. Force(More)
The non-toxic and wide bandgap material TiO2 is explored as an n-type buffer layer on p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layer for thin film solar cells. The amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition process at low temperatures shows conformal coverage on the CIGS absorber layer. Solar cells from non-vacuum deposited CIGS absorbers with(More)