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Many genes whose expression is restricted to neurons in the brain contain a silencer element (RE1/NRSE) that limits transcription in nonneuronal cells by binding the transcription factor REST (also named NRSF or XBR). Although two independent domains of REST are known to confer repression, the mechanisms of transcriptional repression by REST remain obscure.(More)
The mechanisms underlying seizure-induced changes in gene expression are unclear. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that acetylation of histone H4 in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons was reduced at the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2; GRIA2) glutamate receptor promoter but increased at brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter P2 as soon as 3 hr(More)
Postsynaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking mediates some forms of synaptic plasticity that are modulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation and N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF). We report that NSF is physiologically S-nitrosylated by endogenous, neuronally derived nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosylation of NSF augments its binding to the AMPAR GluR2(More)
To understand how neurons control the expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2, we cloned the 5' proximal region of the rat gene and investigated GluR2 promoter activity by transient transfection. RNase protection and primer extension of rat brain mRNA revealed multiple transcription initiation sites from -340 to -481 bases upstream of the GluR2 AUG(More)
Prevailing views of neurotrophin action hold that the transcription factor CREB is constitutively bound to target genes with transcriptional activation occurring via CREB phosphorylation. However, we report that within several CRE-containing genes, CREB is not constitutively bound. Upon exposure of neurons to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), CREB(More)
Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin has been shown to suppress seizures in TSC/PTEN genetic models. Rapamycin, when applied immediately before or after a neurological insult, also prevents the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (epileptogenesis) in an acquired model. In the present study, we examined the mTOR pathway in rats that had already(More)
Lipid rafts are special microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins, and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including signal transduction and protein trafficking. We report that in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons the distribution of lipid rafts is development-dependent. Lipid rafts in mature(More)
We have uncovered a novel function for two members of the SR protein family in mRNA export. Using UV cross-linking, transient transfection, and Xenopus oocyte microinjection, we find that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins SRp20 and 9G8 interact specifically with a 22-nt RNA element from the histone H2a gene to promote the export of intronless RNAs in(More)
Inositol phosphates are well-known signaling molecules, whereas the inositol pyrophosphates, such as diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7/IP7) and bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP8/IP8), are less well characterized. We demonstrate physiologic regulation of Dictyostelium chemotaxis by InsP7 mediated by its competition with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3(More)
Protein kinase B/Akt possesses prosurvival and antiapoptotic activities and is involved in growth factor-mediated neuronal protection. In this study we establish Akt deactivation as a causal mediator of cell death. Akt deactivation occurs in multiple models of cell death including N-methyl-d-aspartate excitotoxicity, vascular stroke, and nitric oxide (NO)-(More)