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BACKGROUND TGF-β plays a dual role in the progression of human cancer. During the early stages of carcinogenesis, TGF-β functions as a tumor suppressor. During the late stages of tumor development, however, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and metastasis. A shift in Smad2/3 phosphorylation from the carboxy terminus to linker sites is a key event determining(More)
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common hepatic cancer with high resistance to current chemotherapies and extremely poor prognosis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on CCA cells both in vitro and in vivo and to examine its underlying mechanism. We found that Sch B inhibited the viability and proliferation of(More)
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