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The current review focuses on the molecular mechanisms and developmental roles of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in gene regulation and metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis and discusses implications for TR function in vertebrate development and diversity. Questions addressed are: (1) what are the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation by TR, (2) what are the(More)
A fascinating feature of thyroid hormone (T3) receptors (TR) is that they constitutively bind to promoter regions of T3-response genes, providing dual functions. In the presence of T3, TR activates T3-inducible genes, while unliganded TR represses these same genes. Although this dual function model is well demonstrated at the molecular level, few studies(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) plays critical roles in vertebrate development. Transcription studies have shown that TR activates or represses TH-inducible genes by recruiting coactivators or corepressors in the presence or absence of TH, respectively. However, the developmental roles of these TR cofactors remain largely unexplored. Frog metamorphosis(More)
In all vertebrates, thyroid hormones (TH) affect postembryonic development. The role of the TH receptor (TR) in mediating the TH signal is complex as evidenced by divergent phenotypes in mice lacking TH compared with TR knock-out mice. We have proposed a dual function model for TR during development based on studies of frog metamorphosis. Here we examined(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of extracellular or membrane-bound proteases. Their ability to cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins has implicated a role in ECM remodeling to affect cell fate and behavior during development and in pathogenesis. We have shown previously that membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP [corrected] is coexpressed(More)
BACKGROUND To adapt to its changing dietary environment, the digestive tract is extensively remodeled from the embryo to the adult during vertebrate development. Xenopus laevis metamorphosis is an excellent model system for studying mammalian gastrointestinal development and is used to determine the genes and signaling programs essential for intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND The intestinal epithelium undergoes constant self-renewal throughout adult life across vertebrates. This is accomplished through the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of the adult stem cells. This self-renewal system is established in the so-called postembryonic developmental period in mammals when endogenous thyroid hormone (T3)(More)
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) stromelysin-3 (ST3) was originally discovered as a gene whose expression was associated with human breast cancer carcinomas and with apoptosis during organogenesis and tissue remodeling. It has been shown previously, in our studies as well as those by others, that ST3 mRNA is highly upregulated during apoptotic tissue(More)