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The genes encoding members of the wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families coordinate growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation in many fields of cells during development. In the mouse, Fgf9 and Wnt4 are expressed in gonads of both sexes prior to sex determination. Loss of Fgf9 leads to XY sex reversal,(More)
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that loss of Fgf9 results in a block of testis development and a male to female sex-reversed phenotype; however, the function of Fgf9 in sex determination was unknown. We now show that Fgf9 is necessary for two steps of testis development just downstream of the male sex-determining gene, Sry: (1) for the proliferation of a(More)
Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. Among the four FGF receptors, FGFR2 showed two highly specific patterns based on antibody staining, suggesting that it might be the receptor-mediating FGF9 signaling in the gonad. FGFR2 was detected at the plasma membrane in proliferating coelomic epithelial cells and in the nucleus in(More)
AIMS We investigated the mechanism by which cannabinoid receptors-1 (CB1) and -2 (CB2) modulate inflammatory activities of macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed the predominant CB2 expression in freshly isolated human monocytes. PMA, a potent inducer of differentiation, upregulated CB1 and increased CB1:CB2 transcript(More)
Activation by the Y-encoded testis determining factor SRY and maintenance of expression of the Sox9 gene encoding the central transcription factor of Sertoli cell differentiation are key events in the mammalian sexual differentiation program. In the mouse XY gonad, SOX9 upregulates Fgf9, which initiates a Sox9/Fgf9 feedforward loop, and Sox9 expression is(More)
The embryonic gonads give rise to one of two morphologically and functionally different organs, a testis or an ovary. Sex determination is the embryonic process that determines the developmental fate of the gonad. In mammals, sex determination is regulated by a DNA binding protein encoded on the Y chromosome, Sry, and it's downstream mediator, Sox9, which(More)
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in Korea. Since 1998, the KNHANES has collected data obtained by direct physical examination, clinical and laboratory tests, personal interviews, and related measurement procedures. These data(More)
Recommendation systems become popular in our daily life. It is well known that the more the release of users' personal data, the better the quality of recommendation. However, such services raise serious privacy concerns for users. In this paper, focusing on matrix factorization-based recommendation systems, we propose the first privacy-preserving matrix(More)