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Human botulism is commonly associated with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, E and F. This suggests that the greatest need is for a tetravalent vaccine that provides protection against all four of these serotypes. In current study, we investigated the feasibility of generating several tetravalent vaccines that protected mice against the four(More)
Active immunotherapy targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) is the most promising strategy to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between providing therapeutically adequate anti-Aβ antibodies and eliminating or suppressing unwanted adverse T cell-mediated(More)
In current study, the immunogenicity of a plasmid DNA replicon vaccine (pSCARSHc) encoding the Hc domain of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (AHc) was investigated and compared with a conventional plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNASHc) encoding the same antigen. In vitro, pSCARSHc incorporating Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon could express AHc(More)
Vaccination with recombinant His-tagged isoforms of the Clostridium botulinum Hc domain of neurotoxin serotype A (rAHc) have effectively protected against challenge with active botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. To establish a formulation suitable for human use, rAHc was expressed in Escherichia coli without a His-tag and purified by sequential chromatography(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage clony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an attractive adjuvant for a DNA vaccine on account of its ability to recruit antigen-presenting cells to the site of antigen synthesis as well as stimulate the maturation of dendritic cells.This study evaluated the utility of GM-CSF as a plasmid DNA replicon vaccine adjuvants for botulinum(More)
NakedDNA vaccines given by intramuscular injection are efficient in mouse models, but they require improvement for human use. As the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines depends, to a large extent, on the presence of CpG motifs as built-in adjuvants, we addressed this issue by inserting three types of human CpG motifs (A-type, B-type, and C-type) into the(More)
Because of the central role it plays in the formation of lethal toxin and edema toxin, protective antigen (PA) is the principal target for the development of vaccines against anthrax. In the present study, we explored and compared the in vitro and in vivo activities of recombinant anthrax protective antigen (rPA) and receptor binding domain of protective(More)
We evaluated the utility of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as molecular adjuvant of replicon vaccines for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in mouse model. In both Balb/c and C57/BL6 mice that received the plasmid DNA replicon vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the Hc gene of BoNT/A (AHc), the immunogenicity was significantly modulated(More)
Active amyloid-beta (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat Alzheimer disease (AD). We describe here the immunological characterization and protective effect of DNA epitope chimeric vaccines using 6 copies of Aβ1-15 fused with PADRE or toxin-derived carriers. These naked 6Aβ15-T-Hc chimeric DNA vaccines were demonstrated to induce(More)
In the present study, we explored and compared the binding activity and immunogenic characterization of the most effective part corresponding to C-terminal quarter of heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (AHc-C) with C-terminal half of heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (AHc). Firstly, the fully soluble AHc-C protein successfully(More)