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Experiments designed to examine the energy requirements of neurophysiological function were performed on isolated rabbit retina. Function was altered by photic stimulation or by function-specific drugs, and the response of energy metabolism was assessed by simultaneous measurements of O2 consumption and lactate production. In other experiments, the supply(More)
Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion(More)
Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in diverse experiments involving low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. However, a severe limitation of atom chips is that techniques to(More)
In vitro rabbit retina was used as an example of CNS tissue in experiments designed to measure the energy requirements associated with the activation of different types of glutamate receptors. Retinas were exposed to glutamate and to four analogs: kainate, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), and(More)
The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision impairment in the ageing population, is characterized by irreversible loss of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors and can be associated with choroidal neovascularization. Mononuclear phagocytes are often present in AMD lesions, but the processes that direct myeloid cell(More)
To assess whether and how zooplankton communities respond to variations in temperature and how these assemblages change with eutrophication, we performed a large-scale, monthly survey from August 2011 to July 2012 to determine the seasonal and spatial variations in these communities in a high-altitude lake. A detrended correspondence analysis and a path(More)
High levels of protective immunity can be induced in different animals immunized with radiation-attenuated (RA) Schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula. However, the schistosome-derived molecules responsible for the strong protective effect elicited by RA schistosome larvae have not been identified or characterized. The 70-kDa heat shock proteins of(More)
Hemibagrus macropterus (Bleeker) is endemic to the upper Yangtze River basin and the Zhujiang River basin in China. By using the fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats protocol, we identified nineteen microsatellite loci in a wild population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 17. The observed(More)
Leiocassis albomargintus (Rendhal) is endemic to the Yangtze River basin in China. By using the fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats protocol, we identified twelve microsatellite loci in a wild population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 13. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged(More)