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In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including 'apoptosis', 'necrosis' and 'mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell(More)
The functions of serotonin have been assigned through serotonin-receptor-specific drugs and mutants; however, because a constellation of receptors remains when a single receptor subtype is inhibited, the coordinate responses to modulation of serotonin levels may be missed. Here we report the analysis of behavioural and neuroendocrine defects caused by a(More)
Hepatic hydroxylation is an essential step in the metabolism and excretion of bile acids and is necessary to avoid pathologic conditions such as cholestasis and liver damage. In this report, we demonstrate that the human xenobiotic receptor SXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor) and its rodent homolog PXR (pregnane X receptor) serve as functional bile acid(More)
Apoptosis is an essential process in the development and homeostasis of all metazoans. The inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins suppress cell death by inhibiting the activity of caspases; this inhibition is performed by the zinc-binding BIR domains of the IAP proteins. The mitochondrial protein Smac/DIABLO promotes apoptosis by eliminating the inhibitory(More)
Apoptosis (programmed cell death), an essential process in the development and homeostasis of metazoans, is carried out by caspases. The mitochondrial protein Smac/DIABLO performs a critical function in apoptosis by eliminating the inhibitory effect of IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) on caspases. Here we show that Smac/DIABLO promotes not only the(More)
Caspase-9-mediated apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of all multicellular organisms. Mature caspase-9 is derived from its procaspase precursor as a result of recruitment by the activating factor Apaf-1. The crystal structures of the caspase-recruitment domain of Apaf-1 by itself and in complex with the(More)
A sequence within the transcription control region of the adeno-associated virus P5 promoter has been shown to mediate transcriptional activation by the adenovirus E1A protein. We report here that this same element mediates transcriptional repression in the absence of E1A. Two cellular proteins have been found to bind to overlapping regions within this(More)
X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) interacts with caspase-9 and inhibits its activity, whereas Smac (also known as DIABLO) relieves this inhibition through interaction with XIAP. Here we show that XIAP associates with the active caspase-9-Apaf-1 holoenzyme complex through binding to the amino terminus of the linker peptide on the small subunit(More)
In response to various environmental stresses, eukaryotic cells down-regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha). In mammals, the phosphorylation was shown to be carried out by eIF-2alpha kinases PKR and HRI. We report the identification and characterization of a cDNA from rat(More)
Hepatic steatosis is common in patients having severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency for cystathionine beta-synthase. However, the mechanism by which homocysteine promotes the development and progression of hepatic steatosis is unknown. We report here that homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates both the unfolded protein(More)