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Ripening of tomato fruits is triggered by the plant hormone ethylene, but its effect is restricted by an unknown developmental cue to mature fruits containing viable seeds. To determine whether this cue involves epigenetic remodeling, we expose tomatoes to the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine and find that they ripen prematurely. We performed(More)
Baculoviruses are important insect pathogens that have been developed as protein expression vectors in insect cells and as transduction vectors for mammalian cells. They have large double-stranded DNA genomes containing approximately 156 tightly spaced genes, and they present significant challenges for transcriptome analysis. In this study, we report the(More)
Autophagy is a catabolic process that functions in recycling and degrading cellular proteins, and is also induced as an adaptive response to the increased metabolic demand upon nutrient starvation. However, the prosurvival role of autophagy in response to metabolic stress due to deprivation of glutamine, the most abundant nutrient for mammalian cells, is(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that initiate specific immune responses against tumor cells. Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulates DC genesis, but whether this pathway regulates DC function in anti-tumor immunity remains unclear. In the present work we attempted to identify the role of Notch(More)
UNLABELLED Productive infection of Trichoplusia ni cells by the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) leads to expression of ~156 viral genes and results in dramatic cell remodeling. How the cell transcriptome responds to viral infection was unknown due to the lack of a reference genome and transcriptome for T. ni. We(More)
Abnormally high concentrations of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) are present along with amyloid-β (Aβ) in the senile plaques in Alzheimer disease, where Al(3+) is also detected. Aβ aggregation is the key pathogenic event in Alzheimer disease, where Aβ oligomers are the major culprits. The fundamental mechanism of these metal ions on Aβ remains elusive. Here, we(More)
Cytosine methylation at CG sites ((m)CG) plays critical roles in development, epigenetic inheritance, and genome stability in mammals and plants. In the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, methyltransferase 1 (MET1), a principal CG methylase, functions to maintain (m)CG during DNA replication, with its null mutation resulting in global hypomethylation(More)
Sex chromosome dosage compensation balances homogametic sex chromosome expression with autosomal expression in the heterogametic sex, leading to sex chromosome expression parity between the sexes. If compensation is incomplete, this can lead to expression imbalance and sex-biased gene expression. Recent work has uncovered an intriguing and variable pattern(More)
Recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that destabilized proteins with defective folding induce aggregation and toxicity in protein-misfolding diseases. One such unstable protein state is called amyloid oligomer, a precursor of fully aggregated forms of amyloid. Detection of various amyloid oligomers with A11, an anti-amyloid oligomer(More)