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Ripening of tomato fruits is triggered by the plant hormone ethylene, but its effect is restricted by an unknown developmental cue to mature fruits containing viable seeds. To determine whether this cue involves epigenetic remodeling, we expose tomatoes to the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine and find that they ripen prematurely. We performed(More)
Baculoviruses are important insect pathogens that have been developed as protein expression vectors in insect cells and as transduction vectors for mammalian cells. They have large double-stranded DNA genomes containing approximately 156 tightly spaced genes, and they present significant challenges for transcriptome analysis. In this study, we report the(More)
Autophagy is a catabolic process that functions in recycling and degrading cellular proteins, and is also induced as an adaptive response to the increased metabolic demand upon nutrient starvation. However, the prosurvival role of autophagy in response to metabolic stress due to deprivation of glutamine, the most abundant nutrient for mammalian cells, is(More)
Sex chromosome dosage compensation balances homogametic sex chromosome expression with autosomal expression in the heterogametic sex, leading to sex chromosome expression parity between the sexes. If compensation is incomplete, this can lead to expression imbalance and sex-biased gene expression. Recent work has uncovered an intriguing and variable pattern(More)
Cytosine methylation at CG sites ((m)CG) plays critical roles in development, epigenetic inheritance, and genome stability in mammals and plants. In the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, methyltransferase 1 (MET1), a principal CG methylase, functions to maintain (m)CG during DNA replication, with its null mutation resulting in global hypomethylation(More)
Abnormally high concentrations of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) are present along with amyloid-β (Aβ) in the senile plaques in Alzheimer disease, where Al(3+) is also detected. Aβ aggregation is the key pathogenic event in Alzheimer disease, where Aβ oligomers are the major culprits. The fundamental mechanism of these metal ions on Aβ remains elusive. Here, we(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that initiate specific immune responses against tumor cells. Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulates DC genesis, but whether this pathway regulates DC function in anti-tumor immunity remains unclear. In the present work we attempted to identify the role of Notch signaling(More)
Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other(More)
Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and the second most common tumor in children. Gliomas are associated high morbidity and mortality because these tumors are highly invasive into surrounding brain tissue, making complete surgical resection impossible. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as(More)