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The root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) in heart period series is a time domain measure of heart period variability. The RMSSD is sensitive to high-frequency heart period fluctuations in the respiratory frequency range and has been used as an index of vagal cardiac control. By transfer function simulations, the RMSSD statistic is shown to(More)
The onset of ventricular depolarization defines the start of the preejection period (PEP), which is commonly used as an index of myocardial contractility and sympathetic control of the heart. Although the fiducial point for this onset has traditionally been the onset of the Q wave of the electrocardiogram, other measurement points have also been used in the(More)
Through the light-driven geometrically oriented attachment (OA) and self-assembly of Au nanorods (NRs) or nanoparticles (NPs), single-crystalline Au nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by the irradiation of a linearly-polarized (LP) laser. The process was conducted in a droplet of Au colloid on a glass irradiated by LP near-infrared (e.g. 1064 nm and 785 nm)(More)
This study uses freshwater fish of Taiwan as an example to explore people's preferences regarding conservation of endangered animal species and restoration policies, as well as a measurement of the value they are willingness to pay. This study employs the contingent valuation method (CVM) to construct a virtual market, and uses double-bound dichotomous(More)
Demand forecast plays a critical role to determine capital investment for capacity planning. Given the involved uncertainties and long lead-time for capacity expansion, semiconductor companies have to predict future demands as a basis for related manufacturing strategic decisions. As semiconductor products in a consumer era become more diversified with(More)
The purpose of this study is to develop a simulation model to evaluate sustainability of water supply systems for Taipei municipal and neighbor areas. The definition of sustainability is addressed first, which indicates that sustainable development requires keeping cumulative impacts not exceeding environmental carrying capacity. The carrying capacity of a(More)
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