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The two main types of corticostriatal neurons are those that project only intratelencephalically (IT-type), the intrastriatal terminals of which are 0.41 microm in mean diameter, and those that send their main axon into pyramidal tract and have a collateral projection to striatum (PT-type), the intrastriatal terminals of which are 0.82 microm in mean(More)
Two types of corticostriatal projection neurons have been identified: 1) one whose intrastriatal arborization arises as a collateral of a projection to the ipsilateral brainstem via the pyramidal tract (PT-type); and 2) one that projects intratelencephalically to the cortex and striatum, in many cases bilaterally, but not extratelencephalically (IT-type).(More)
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in low-grade hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a common neuropsychiatric complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a resting-state fMRI in 19 healthy controls, 18 cirrhotic(More)
Exercise has been shown to be potently neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative models, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to determine the critical duration of exercise necessary for DA neuroprotection, mice were allowed to run for either 1, 2 or 3months prior to treatment with(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a wide phenotypic range, often affecting personality and communication. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of ASD have identified both gray- and white-matter volume changes. However, the cerebral cortex is a 2-D sheet with a highly folded and curved geometry, which VBM cannot(More)
Magnetic resonance (MR) examination provides a powerful tool for investigating brain structural changes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We review recent advances in the understanding of structural MR correlates of ASD. We summarize findings from studies based on voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, tensor-based morphometry,(More)
Free radical damage has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. One model of experimental parkinsonism is the loss of substantia nigra cells following administration of MPTP. Previously, it has been shown that a number of inbred strains of mice have differential(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark pathological features include a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Recent studies have described the activation of a stress-induced signal cascade, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated activation of c-Jun, and an increase in the expression of a downstream effector,(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor signs in the gastrointestinal tract that include dysphagia, gastroparesis, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time, constipation and difficulty with defecation. The gastrointestinal dysfunction commonly precedes the motor symptoms by decades. Most PD is sporadic and of(More)
Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic(More)