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DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to(More)
TET2 is a close relative of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in DNA. The gene encoding TET2 resides at chromosome 4q24, in a region showing recurrent microdeletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) in patients with diverse myeloid malignancies. Somatic TET2 mutations are frequently(More)
Multiword expressions (MWEs) have been proved useful for many natural language processing tasks. However, how to use them to improve performance of statistical machine translation (SMT) is not well studied. This paper presents a simple yet effective strategy to extract domain bilingual multiword expressions. In addition, we implement three methods to(More)
ii c 2000 Ali Jadbabaie All Rights Reserved iii To Nikroo iv Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to the people who have made this thesis possible. First, I am obliged to my advisor, professor John Doyle, for taking the risk of accepting me as his student in the middle of the academic year. John has taught me to think independently, while(More)
This paper explores the feasibility of a graph-based approach to model student knowledge in the domain of programming. The key idea of this approach is that programming concepts are truly learned not in isolation, but rather in combination with other concepts. Following this idea, we represent a student model as a graph where links are gradually added when(More)
BACKGROUND We recently showed that enzymes of the TET family convert 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in DNA. 5-hmC is present at high levels in embryonic stem cells and Purkinje neurons. The methylation status of cytosines is typically assessed by reaction with sodium bisulfite followed by PCR amplification. Reaction with sodium bisulfite promotes(More)
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo dramatic rearrangements to their methylome during embryogenesis, including initial genome-wide DNA demethylation that establishes the germline epigenetic ground state. The role of the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dioxygenases Tet1 and Tet2 in the initial genome-wide DNA demethylation process has not been examined directly.(More)
A forward genetic screen of mice treated with the mutagen ENU identified a mutant mouse with chronic motor incoordination. This mutant, named Pingu (Pgu), carries a missense mutation, an I402T substitution in the S6 segment of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kcna2. The gene Kcna2 encodes the voltage-gated potassium channel α-subunit Kv1.2, which is(More)
Dioxygenases of the Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) family are 5-methylcytosine oxidases that convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidation products in DNA. We show that Tet1 and Tet2 have distinct roles in regulating 5hmC in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). Tet1 depletion diminishes 5hmC levels at transcription(More)